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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 178-180

Scope and need of curriculum mapping in accomplishing learning outcomes in the field of medical education


1 Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission01-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance09-Feb-2021
Date of Web Publication31-May-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_388_20

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  Abstract 


Curriculum refers to the complete range of student experiences to which they will be exposed in the educational process. For any curriculum, communicability and transparency have been regarded as the crucial aspects. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine, and a total of six articles were selected based upon the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Curriculum mapping has been identified as the method to ensure communicability and transparency, but it also plays an important role in bridging the gaps between the declared, taught, and tested curriculum. The mapping helps establish a relationship between various components of the curriculum and is the key strategy to ascertain the accomplishment of learning objectives or outcomes formulated for any curriculum. In conclusion, the process of curriculum mapping in the field of medical education has been acknowledged as an effective strategy to facilitate evaluation, rapid improvement, and evolution of the curriculum and thus improve the educational outcomes.

Keywords: Curriculum mapping, learning outcomes, medical education


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Scope and need of curriculum mapping in accomplishing learning outcomes in the field of medical education. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2021;14:178-80

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Scope and need of curriculum mapping in accomplishing learning outcomes in the field of medical education. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 3];14:178-80. Available from: https://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2021/14/2/178/317409




  Introduction Top


Curriculum refers to the complete range of student experiences to which they will be exposed in the educational process. The curriculum is not only restricted to course content (syllabus) but also includes the learning outcomes, teaching–learning methods, learning objectives, assessment, timetable, reference books, and logistics.[1] It is a must that regardless of the type of curriculum or its stage (viz., new or well-established), it has to be continuously monitored, reviewed, evaluated, and even revised after it has been implemented based on the evaluation findings.[1] This process of monitoring, reviewing, and evaluating is extremely important in the field of medical education curriculum, as it has to change periodically depending on the changing healthcare needs of the society.[1],[2]


  Methods Top


An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in the PubMed search engine. Relevant research articles focusing on curriculum mapping in medical education published in the period 2001–2019 were included in the review. A total of nine studies similar to the current study objectives were identified initially, of which three were excluded due to the unavailability of the complete version of the articles. Overall, six articles were selected based upon the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Keywords used in the search include curriculum mapping and medical education. The collected information is presented under the following subheadings, namely need for curriculum mapping, scope of curriculum mapping, carrying out curriculum mapping, and lessons from the field.

Need for curriculum mapping

For any curriculum, communicability (viz., which topic will be taught how and when, and when and how it will be assessed to help the student to become competent in the defined competencies) and transparency (viz., all the stakeholders of the curriculum – the teacher, the student, the curriculum developers, parents, and the general population – are aware about the entire educational process) have been regarded as the crucial aspects.[3] However, it will not be wrong to document that both these aspects often get ignored and immense priority has been given to the syllabus, teaching–learning, and assessment.[1],[3] Moving further, we have to acknowledge that mere formulation of a comprehensive curriculum does not justify that it will be delivered effectively to the medical students. On the similar note, it is not mandatory that the mere delivery of curriculum in the planned manner can certify that students have understood it well.[1],[2],[3]


  Curriculum Mapping: Scope Top


Curriculum mapping has been identified as the method to ensure communicability and transparency, but it also plays an important role in bridging the gaps between the declared (what students will learn at the end of the course), taught, and tested (what students actually learn) curriculum.[2],[4] The mapping helps establish a relationship between various components of the curriculum and is the key strategy to ascertain the accomplishment of learning objectives or outcomes formulated for any curriculum.[4],[5] The map lays down the specific areas/competencies which a medical student should learn and thus makes the teacher well informed to ensure that all these core competencies are taught and assessed without missing or repeating them.[2],[3],[4]

Furthermore, this can also create opportunities for students to monitor their own learning and for teachers to make students aware about the areas which needs to be given more importance.[2],[4] The process of curriculum mapping has delivered encouraging results across heterogeneous settings in helping the curriculum planners and the students to achieve intended learning outcomes.[3],[4],[5],[6] In fact, realizing the importance of curriculum mapping, most of the accreditation agencies have given specific weightage in the overall process of assessment and accreditation.

Carrying out curriculum mapping

The process of performing the mapping of curriculum is a complex task and requires support from all the faculty members of each of the departments. The Medical Education Unit of the institution plays a crucial role in the process as the success of the entire process depends on the capacity building. At Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, an online faculty development program was organized to sensitize the faculty members about what is curriculum mapping, the need of the same, merits of the same, and important definitions (viz., program outcomes, course outcomes, and program educational objectives). A live demonstration was done depicting the mapping of program outcomes with course outcomes pertaining to anatomy subject. Subsequently, faculty members were also oriented about displaying the recorded observations in a spider web diagram in the excel sheet. All the undergraduate and postgraduate departments were instructed to carry out the task individually, and their responses were compiled together to prepare the curriculum mapping document. It is quite essential to map different subject competencies in terms of when it is being taught, the teaching–learning method/s which will be used to teach, and when it will be assessed. Such mapping is must for all the core competencies, and the success of the entire process depends on the cooperation and teamwork by all the department faculty members.

Lessons from the field

In both the constituent colleges of the Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Deemed-to-be-University, Puducherry – Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute and Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute – the process of curriculum mapping has been done across all the postgraduate and undergraduate courses. Efforts have been taken to make it as an annual event with an intention to benefit the students. However, we must note that the process of curriculum mapping cannot deliver the desired results unless the process of review of the curriculum remains continuous.[1],[4]


  Conclusion Top


The process of curriculum mapping in the field of medical education has been acknowledged as an effective strategy to facilitate evaluation, rapid improvement, and evolution of the curriculum and thus improve the educational outcomes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sterz J, Hoefer SH, Janko M, Bender B, Adili F, Schreckenbach T, et al. Do they teach what they need to? An analysis of the impact of curriculum mapping on the learning objectives taught in a lecture series in surgery. Med Teach 2019;41:417-21.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Al-Eyd G, Achike F, Agarwal M, Atamna H, Atapattu DN, Castro L, et al. Curriculum mapping as a tool to facilitate curriculum development: A new School of Medicine experience. BMC Med Educ 2018;18:185.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Harden RM. AMEE Guide No. 21: Curriculum mapping: A tool for transparent and authentic teaching and learning. Med Teach 2001;23:123-37.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Plaza CM, Draugalis JR, Slack MK, Skrepnek GH, Sauer KA. Curriculum mapping in program assessment and evaluation. Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71:20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Herrmann T, Leggett T. Curriculum mapping: Aligning content and design. Radiol Technol 2019;90:530-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pigoga JL, Cunningham C, Kafwamfwa M, Wallis LA. Adapting the emergency first aid responder course for Zambia through curriculum mapping and blueprinting. BMJ Open 2017;7:e018389.  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

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