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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 178-196

Biochemical features of blood vessel extracellular calcium-sensing receptor and their physiological mechanism of action in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure


Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Arsi University, Assela, Oromia, Ethiopia

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Leta Melaku
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Arsi University, Assela, Oromia
Ethiopia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_94_20

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The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein coupled receptor superfamily that has ability to sense very small changes in extracellular Ca2+ with primary physiological function of maintenance of constant blood Ca2+ levels. In addition to being expressed in tissues involved in [Ca2+]o homeostasis, it is also expressed in tissues not involved in mineral homeostasis, suggestive of additional physiological functions such as control vasomotor tone and blood pressure. However, the exact cellular mechanisms involved in these responses remain unclear. Stimulation of CaRs on perivascular nerves is proposed to evoke synthesis and release of nitric oxide (NO) from pre-synaptic terminals, which activate large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in adjacent VSMCs that induce membrane hyperpolarisation and subsequent vasorelaxation. Plus, activation of CaRs on endothelial cells is reported to generate NO or vasoactive lipids or induce activation of intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels to induce vasorelaxations. In contrast, CaR-induced activation of Gq and MAPK kinase-mediated pathways in VSMCs are linked to vasoconstriction and cell proliferation respectively. Taken together, these findings indicate that stimulation of vascular CaRs is reported to induce both constrictions and relaxations. In the endothelium intact artery, CaR mediated vasorelaxations are the dominant physiological phenomenon.


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