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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 311-313

Treatment patterns in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University; Department of Community Medicine, KLE University's Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and, KLE Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and MRC, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication5-Sep-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dhongadi Prashant
Department of Community Medicine, J. N. M. C, KLE University, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.ijhs_313_16

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases in the world. There is an epidemic of diabetes in developing and nondeveloping countries. Treatment patterns play a very important role in the control of blood glucose levels of the patient.
Methodology: A total of 520 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the area of Urban Health Centre, Ashok Nagar, were interviewed with the help of a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Data were collected by house-to-house visit.
Results: Out of the 520 participants, 264 were male and 256 were female. Oral hypoglycemic agents were the most common modality of treatment used followed by a combination of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin. About 82 participants were not on any treatment and 18 participants were on insulin exclusively.
Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents are the most commonly preferred drugs. Insulin therapy has some conservation among patients. Imparting health education and the importance of adherence to treatment is of utmost importance in diabetes patients.

Keywords: Treatment patterns, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Urban Health Centre


How to cite this article:
Prashant D, Kambar S. Treatment patterns in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2017;10:311-3

How to cite this URL:
Prashant D, Kambar S. Treatment patterns in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jul 6];10:311-3. Available from: https://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/311/213997




  Introduction Top


Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases. It is the fourth leading cause of death in high-income countries, and there is substantial evidence that there may be an epidemic in economically developing and newly industrialized countries.[1]

An astounding 382 million people are estimated to have diabetes, with a dramatic increase seen in countries all over the world. People who are socioeconomically weak in every country carry the greatest burden of diabetes. According to the recent estimates, an increasing trend is noticed in younger people developing diabetes, which is worrisome for future generations.[2] There were about 69.1 million people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in India in 2015.[3]

Treatment modalities play a very important role in controlling the glucose levels in diabetes mellitus patients. There is a paucity on the knowledge of various varieties of treatment available.

Primary prevention and lifestyle modifications still play a very important role in the prevention of diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes is known to be associated with a number of comorbidities and micro- and macro-vascular complication development if the blood glucose levels are not in the specified range. Hence, treatment and lifestyle modifications play a very important role in maintaining the blood glucose levels within the specified range.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to know the various modalities of treatment used by type 2 diabetes mellitus patients residing in the urban area of Belagavi city.


  Materials and Methods Top


  1. Source of data: A total of 520 diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients residing in the area of Urban Health Centre (UHC) Ashok Nagar, which is the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Belagavi. The population under UHC Ashok Nagar is 32,700[4]
  2. Study design: A community-based, cross-sectional study
  3. Study period: 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015.


Methodology

Inclusion criteria

All type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with comorbidities were included in the study.

Exclusion criteria

Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study.

Sampling method

The population under UHC Ashok Nagar is 32,700 which includes areas of Shiv Basav Nagar, Markandeya Nagar, Nehru Nagar, Ashok Nagar, and JNMC college area. A total of 520 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who reside in the area of UHC Ashok Nagar which includes all the above-mentioned areas were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent from the study participants. Sociodemographic details and details regarding the treatment patterns in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were collected using a predesigned pretested questionnaire.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel worksheet 2013 and SPSS version 20 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago IL – Trial version). Mean and standard deviation were calculated. Categorical data were summarized by rates (percentages).


  Results Top


In our study, out of the 520 participants, 264 (50.76%) were male and 256 (49.24%) were female. About 12/520 participants belonged to age group in between 31 and 40 years. Seventy-nine participants belonged to the age group of 41–50 years, maximum participants, i.e., 198 belonged to age group in between 51 and 60 years, 188 participants were in the age group of 61–70 years, 37 participants were in the age group of 71–80 years, and six participants were more than 81 years of age. The mean age of the participants was 59.3 ± 9.6 years with a minimum age of 35 years and a maximum age of 85 years. Out of the total participants, 343 were Hindus, 94 were Muslims, 64 were Christians, and 19 belonged to other religion [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3].
Table 1: Distribution of study participants according to their sex

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Table 2: Distribution of study participants according to their age group

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Table 3: Distribution of study participants according to their religion

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In our study, we noticed that 225 participants were on oral hypoglycemic agents, 18 participants were exclusively on insulin therapy, 195 participants were on both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents, and 82 participants were not on any kind of treatment [Table 4].
Table 4: Distribution of study participants according to their treatment patterns

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  Discussion Top


In our study, we noticed that 264 (50.76%) were male and 256 (49.24%) were female participants. Out of them, 12 (2.3%) belonged to 31–40 years' age group, 79 (15.19%) were in the age group of 41–50 years, 198 (38.07%) were in the age group of 51–60 years, 188 (36.15%) participants were in the age group between 61 and 70 years, 37 (7%) participants belonged to the age group of 71–80 years, and 6 (1.2%) participants were more than 81 years of age with an average mean of 59.3 ± 9.6 years and with a minimum age of 35 years and a maximum age of 85 years. In a similar study done in New Delhi,[5] the average age of the participants was 53.9 ± 8.3 years; the number of male participants was 105 (61.8%) and female participants was 65 (32.8%). In another study carried out by Adeniyi et al. in South Africa,[6] 230 (70.3%) were male participants and 97 were female participants (29.7%).

In our study, we found that oral hypoglycemic drugs were the most common modality of treatment, i.e., 225 (43.2%) participants were on oral hypoglycemic agents, 18 (3.46%) participants were exclusively on insulin, 195 (37.5%) participants were on both oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, and 82 (15.76%) participants were not on any modality of treatment. In a study conducted by Venkatesh et al. in New Delhi,[5] it was noticed that 92 patients were on oral hypoglycemic drugs and 77 (45.6%) were on insulin which is higher in comparison to our study, the reason may be because their study involved patients with diabetic retinopathy only whereas our study involved all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In another study conducted in New Delhi [7] by Nair et al., it was observed that allopathic treatment when combined with naturopathy has shown to increase glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.


  Conclusion Top


Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is of utmost importance. The various modalities of treatment available to the patients should be discussed in detail with them, and the best mode of treatment for the individual should be prescribed. In addition to the mode of treatment, the importance of adherence to treatment, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, and regular consultation with physician is of utmost importance in diabetic patients. In our study, we found that oral hypoglycemic agents were the most commonly used mode of treatment, followed by a combination of insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Patients exclusively on insulin were very less probably because of the fact that most of the patients were skeptical about the use of insulin and the fear of injection associated with it. It was also noted that 82 participants were not taking any treatment. There is a need to educate patients with diabetes about the need for proper means of treatment and adherence to it.

Limitations

This study is restricted to urban area only, so the results cannot be generalized. The study involved only a selected sample size. The recall bias cannot be ruled out.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
The global burden of diabetes mellitus. IDF Atlas. 6th ed; 2013. Available from: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas. [Last accessed on 2015 Mar 31].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Lal's S. Textbook of Community Medicine. 3rd ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2011. p. 576-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
International Diabetic federation. Global Atlas. 7th ed; 2015. Available from: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 13].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Community Needs Assessment Survey 2013-14. Belagavi: UHC.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Venkatesh P, Tibrewal S, Bhowmik D, Tripathi M, Ramakrishnan S, Vashist N, et al. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy. Indian J Med Res 2014;140:77-83.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
6.
Adeniyi OV, Yogeswaran P, Longo-Mbenza B, Goon DT, Ajayi AI. Cross-sectional study of patients with Type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa. BMJ Open 2016;6:e010875.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nair R, Saxena D, Chawla R, Sood VR, Jain A. Effect of two months naturopathy treatment in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Int J Sci Res IJSR 2016;5:290-93.  Back to cited text no. 7
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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