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  Most popular articles (Since January 17, 2017)

 
 
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PICTORIAL ESSAY
Dental radiographic signs
Swati Phore, Rahul Singh Panchal, Pallavi Baghla, Nuzhat Nabi
July-December 2015, 8(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.174234  
Many lesions that occur in the jaw present with a similar radiographical appearance and it is often difficult to differentiate among them. Despite the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains the first, and the most important investigations. Some diseases have typical radiographical signs and findings that are particular to a specific disease. The aim of this review is to describe collective esoteric knowledge, about various radiographic signs associated with the orofacial region.
  13,509 938 -
CASE REPORTS
Isolated fetal ascites: A case report with review of literature
Santosh B Kurbet, Niranjana S Mahantshetti, Prashanth Gouda Patil, Mahantesh V Patil, Dinesh Singh
January-June 2014, 7(1):55-57
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.135048  
Fetal ascites is commonly seen with hydrops fetalis. Historically, fetal ascites has been associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Primary isolated fetal ascites occurs independently as an isolated disease due to numerous congenital abnormalities. Extensive antenatal and postnatal evaluation for the detection of the cause is done in these cases, if found and appropriately treated have shown good results. In conclusion, even a rare case of fetal ascites can be managed successfully.
  10,410 745 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition - A fundamental mechanism in cancer progression: An overview
Punnya V Angadi, Alka D Kale
July-December 2015, 8(2):77-84
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.174233  
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a significant role in embryogenesis. EMT is also implicated as a fundamental step development of invasive phenotypes associated with progression of cancer. EMT confers the cancer cells with migratory and invasive properties that allow them to come into the stroma, which creates a conducive environment for cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, acquisition of EMT is linked with resistance to chemotherapy that could lead to recurrences and enhance the morbidity and mortality related to cancers. Consequently, EMT has been associated with carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and chemoresistance. Research into EMT and its role in cancer pathogenesis has advanced in a rapid pace, but since its participation shows considerable variation among different cancer types and the exact mechanism operative in different cancers remains ambiguous; EMT continues to be a significant issue for research. In this review, we present an overview of EMT, its role in cancer progression and the clinical implication of its identification.
  7,324 1,642 -
An overview on sildenafil and female infertility
Jyoti M Benni, Paragouda A Patil
May-August 2016, 9(2):131-136
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.191247  
Endometrial thickness (EM) is one of the strongest predictors of implantation rate and ongoing pregnancy success rate. The endometrial growth is dependent on the uterine blood flow and angiogenesis. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of sildenafil citrate on EM. Sildenafil citrate leads to smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation. Because of these biological properties, it is a potential candidate for female infertility, especially in the management of thin endometrium, which leads to low implantation and pregnancy rates. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for the role of sildenafil in thin endometrium. Systematic search through all the clinical studies showed favorable results. They documented the beneficial role of sildenafil citrate in the treatment of thin endometrium in failed in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles, assisted intrauterine insemination cycles, or resistant endometrium, where it increased the uterine receptivity.
  7,032 530 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of knowledge, attitude, and practices of menstrual health among adolescent school girls in urban field practice area of medical college, Tumkur
Purva Shoor
September-December 2017, 10(3):249-255
DOI:10.4103/kleuhsj.ijhs_375_16  
Introduction: Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to females. In India, limited access to products of sanitary hygiene and lack of safe sanitary facilities could increase the likelihood of resorting to unhygienic practices to manage menstruation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2013 to April 2014 by interviewing 452 adolescent school girls using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. There were 6 schools and 1 PUC college in the study area. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.3. Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1) to study the knowledge and attitude toward menstruation among adolescent school girls, (2) to study the practices of menstrual hygiene among adolescent school girls, (3) to enumerate the common menstrual morbidities among girls, and (4) to elicit their health-seeking behavior regarding menstrual health. Results: The mean age and standard deviation of girls included in the study were 13.05 years and 0.09472. Only 37.39% girls knew that infection would occur if they do not clean their vagina regularly during menstruation. Only 34.1% girls had the right perception about menstruation as a normal physiological process. Majority of girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. 35.32% of girls said that they were scared when they first attained menarche. Only 11.08% girls said that they had no restrictions during menstruation. Conclusion: The school girls had less than satisfactory knowledge, but good practices regarding menstrual health among those who had attained menarche. Religion, mother's education, and socioeconomic status were factors determining knowledge, attitude, and practices of menstrual health among adolescent school girls.
  6,631 656 1
EXPERT REVIEW
Algorithm of ancient Ayurveda method of semen analysis and integrative approach toward male infertility
Sreenivasa Prasad Buduru, Giridhar Vedantam
January-April 2016, 9(1):5-13
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.183681  
Ayurveda scientifically described as andrology (Vajikarana) incorporates semen morphology in normal and pathological conditions, as 8-fold pathological condition and therapy are based on them. Morphological and physicochemical evaluation methods of semen are useful in better diagnosis of clinical manifestation of underlying etiopathology. Based on the standard publications on andrology, an attempt is made to integrate the clinical and laboratory diagnostics of semen physiology and pathology, which help in understanding the abnormalities in conventional Ayurveda as well as modern medicine to plan appropriate pharmacotherapy. Integrative approach would open up new arena in andrology and widen the scope of therapeutic benefits to more infertile males.
  6,720 425 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge and perception regarding childhood pneumonia among mothers of under-five children in rural areas of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka: A cross-sectional study
Susan Mary Pradhan, Arathi P Rao, Sanjay M Pattanshetty, AR Nilima
January-April 2016, 9(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.183690  
Background: A large number of children die due to pneumonia making it the single largest infectious cause of death more than AIDS, measles, and malaria combined. In India, acute respiratory infection is a major public health problem, especially for the age group of 0–5 years which contributes to 15–30% of deaths falling under this age group and most of these deaths are preventable. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge and perception regarding childhood pneumonia among mothers of under-five children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 mothers of under-five children. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the sampling technique used was three-stage cluster sampling. The questionnaire was divided into three sections as socio-demographic profile, level of knowledge, and level of perception. Results: The study found that mothers were predominantly secondary school graduates (32.6%) out of which, 93.7% were homemakers, 41.3% mothers had fair knowledge, and 41.5% had fair perception about pneumonia. Age and education level of mothers had a significant association with the knowledge as well as with perception. There was a significant association between level of knowledge and perception of childhood pneumonia among these mothers. Conclusion: Overall, mothers had fair knowledge and fair perception of childhood pneumonia. The lack of knowledge about simple signs and symptoms and factors related to pneumonia needs to be addressed.
  5,455 616 1
Epidemiology of diabetic foot complications in a podiatry clinic of a tertiary hospital in South India
V Jyothylekshmy, Arun S Menon, Suja Abraham
January-June 2015, 8(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.158231  
Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide resulting in foot complications, which leads to poor quality of life and increased cost of living. Aim: The main aim of this study was to find out the foot complications in diabetic patients and to analyze the underlying etiology. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out in the podiatry Department of Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala among 277 diabetic patients with recent and recurrent foot complications. Results: Systemic hypertension (76.89%) has been found to be one of the major risk factor coexisting in the study population. 49.45% patients had preexisting peripheral neuropathy and non-healing ulcers were seen in 41.51%. Other complications include charcot arthropathy (10.46%), gangrene (9.38%), cellulitis (7.94%), fungal infections (6.89%), callus (3.61%), osteomyelitis (3.97%), and necrotizing fasciitis (2.52%). Culture report on foot ulcer patients revealed that Gram-positive Staphylococcus species (18.8%) and the Gram-negative Pseudomonas species (18.2%) were the predominant organisms. Other organisms isolated were Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, Acenetobacter, Proteus, Enterococcus species, and streptococci. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics (33.5%), followed by penicillin (8.3%), clindamycin (6.1%), carbapenems (5.05%), cephalosporins (2.8%), cotrimoxazole (2.5%), and chloramphenicol (0.7%). Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of foot care, relevance of early detection of diabetes and subsequent monitoring of diabetic complications.
  5,183 692 1
Effect of thoracic and rib manipulation on pain and restricted shoulder mobility in subjects with frozen shoulder: A randomised clinical trial
Jyotsna V Chitroda, Anand Heggannavar
July-December 2014, 7(2):92-99
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.148807  
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thoracic and rib manipulation on pain and restricted shoulder mobility in subjects with frozen shoulder. Relevance: The term frozen shoulder was first introduced by Codman in 1934 and described as "a painful condition of insidious onset that was associated with stiffness and difficulty in sleeping on the affected side." The main physical therapy program consists of thermotherapy, shoulder exercise, mobilization techniques, Codman's exercise, and capsular stretches. Recent discussion in the physical therapy community has been targeted toward addressing the thoracic spine for treating the patients with shoulder impairments. Participants: A total of 30 subjects (mean age of  55.70 ± 9.49 years) with the diagnosis of frozen shoulder stage II and III were recruited from outpatient department of Physiotherapy of KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and MRC and KLES Ayurved Hospital and Research Centre, Shahpur, Belgaum. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects. They were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 15) receiving conventional therapy for 6 sessions a week for 2 weeks and Group B (n = 15) receiving thoracic and rib manipulation 3 sessions a week for 2 weeks in addition to conventional therapy. The outcome measures taken were visual analogue scale (VAS), shoulder range of motion (ROM) of flexion, abduction, internal rotation and external rotation and Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score. The outcomes were assessed on day 1 pretreatment and day 14 posttreatment. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The intra group mean difference in pre and postvalues for Group A were 4 ± 0.27 cm, 49.7° ±13.3°,49.3° ±13.38°, 21.4° ±7.33°, 23.9° ±7.51°, and 893.3° ±269.66° for VAS, shoulder ROM of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, external rotation and DASH scores respectively. While for Group B intra group mean differences in pre and postvalues were 5.7 ± 0.66 cm, 64.1° ±7.09°, 71.1° ±5.59°, 32.3° ±5.23°, 40.9° ±5.52°, 1073.3° ±229.42° for VAS, shoulder ROM of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, external rotation and DASH scores respectively . The intra group comparison showed statistical significance with P < 0.001.Whereas results of the between the group comparison showed that Group B showed better improvement than Group A that was statistically significant with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that thoracic and rib manipulation is effective in relieving pain, improving the shoulder range and reducing disability in patients with Frozen Shoulder. Clinical Implication: Thoracic and rib Manipulation can be added in the treatment plan for frozen shoulder for better and speed recovery.
  4,520 501 -
Assessment of attitude of the women of the reproductive age group toward girl child in an urban slum in Punjab
Rajinder S Balgir, Sumeet Singh
January-June 2015, 8(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.158234  
Introduction: Girl child continues to be insecure and vulnerable in South-East Asia particularly in India despite various legal measures. Only law cannot be a solution, identifying the social factors and working on their improvements are also essential. Aims and Objectives: (1) To assess the present child sex ratio (0-6 child sex ratio [CSR]) in defined study population. (2) To assess the attitude of the women of the reproductive age group toward the girl child and relate it to the status of sex ratio. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a sub locality of 283 households out of which 147 households having children in age group of 0-6 years were selected and mothers of children were interviewed with a prestructured pretested questionnaire containing a rating scale of 40 items in vernacular language to determine the attitude of the mother toward girl child. Results: Total no. of children in the age group of 0-6 years were found to be 241, with CSR of 709 but had a sharp contrast in children <2 years with CSR nearing 1000 as compared to elder children with much lower Figures 50.4%, 10.9%, and 38.7% of the respondent mothers had a positive, mixed, and negative attitude toward girl child respectively. Discussion: The negative attitude especially among mothers should be well addressed. Awareness among them needs to be raised along with appropriate changes in society to bring the reputation of females at par with male counterparts.
  4,789 197 -
Formulation and evalution of new polyherbal toothpaste for oral care
S Abhay, Basavaraj M Dinnimath
January-June 2015, 8(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.158217  
Aim and Objective: The main objective of this research was to formulate medicated polyherbal toothpaste with better antimicrobial activity from natural sources for dental infections. Materials and Method: The hydroalcoholic extracts of apple peel, lemon peel, orange peel, banana peel was carried out and the formulated toothpaste from the above extracts were subjected for antimicrobial activity study against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans) and Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis). Results: Antibacterial activity of the toothpaste was determined by the 2-fold serial dilution method. All the extract has showed good antimicrobial against P. gingivalis, with apple extract showing the best result (7.8 mg/ml). Conclusion: Thus, our study shows the potent antibacterial activity of the formulated polyherbal toothpaste compared with the marketed formulation against dental caries.
  4,202 569 -
A comparative study to assess the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected areas at Belgaum
Abhay D Pattan, Mangesh J Jabade, Sangeeta A Moreshwar
January-June 2014, 7(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.135088  
A comparative study of assessing the knowledge of mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected rural and urban areas in Belgaum. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of rural mothers of infants regarding weaning, to assess the knowledge of urban mothers of infants regarding weaning and to compare the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning with selected demographic variables. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Data was collected by using structured interview schedule. The data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics like mean, standard deviation, mean percentage, median, 't' test and chi-square. Results: The knowledge of mothers of infants in rural area regarding weaning was found to be average and in urban area it was found to be satisfactory. The mean knowledge score was 29.93 with S.D. 3.11 in rural area and 35.97 with S.D. 4.80 in urban area.
  4,417 264 -
CASE REPORTS
Clinical profile of nasal polyp in a pediatric patient: An Ayurvedic approach
Aziz Ahmed Arbar, Sweta Verma
Sep-Dec 2016, 9(3):335-338
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.196338  
Nasal polyp is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. It is a relatively common disease occurring in 1%–4% of the general population, but it is also seen in the pediatric population. Children present with nasal polyps are also known to have other underlying systemic diseases, mainly cystic fibrosis and bronchial asthma. Nasal polyp is common in the pediatric population especially in teenage, and is found usually bilateral. It is also commonly associated with bronchial asthma and many other systemic diseases. Beginning in preschool age, up to 50% of patients experience obstructing nasal polyp. In contemporary science, nasal polyp is not curable but can be clinically stabilized. When conservative measures are exhausted, surgical intervention combining endoscopic sinus surgery and supportive conservative treatment is performed. In the present paper, we aimed to present a treated patient of nasal polyp by the ayurvedic modalities such as Snehana, Swedana, Nasya, Gandusha, and Dhoompana with a positive change in the clinical picture.
  4,439 150 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation of serum ferritin levels, in female patients with chronic diffuse hair loss: A cross sectional study
Sridevi Ramachandra Raichur, AM Pandit, Anil Malleshappa
May-August 2017, 10(2):190-195
DOI:10.4103/kleuhsj.ijhs_312_16  
Context: Iron is involved in critical physiological processes within the hair follicle, suggesting that iron deficiency (ID) could disrupt hair synthesis. The relationship between body iron status and hair loss has been investigated in a number of studies, however, with relatively discrepant findings. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in patients were associated with decreased tissue iron stores, as measured by serum ferritin levels. Setting and Design: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients aged between 15 and 45 years, having chronic diffuse hair loss, were recruited. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used in this study was Mean ± standard deviation, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and one-sample t-test. Results: The mean serum ferritin levels in all participants, CTE, and FPHL were 18.6 μg/L, 16 μg/L, and 36.64 μg/L, respectively. Almost 57.5% of participants had serum ferritin levels <12 μg/L indicating ID, and 15% of participants had serum ferritin levels ranging 13–20 μg/L indicating iron depletion. Twenty-five percent of participants had serum ferritin levels ranging from 21 to 70 μg/L, indicating that serum ferritin levels were lower than required for normal hair cycle. Since there is a wide range of serum ferritin level (6–160 μg/L), a cutoff level of 41 μg/L was used to observe ID. There was a significant difference between the mean serum ferritin levels of participants as compared to the cutoff level of serum ferritin. Mean serum ferritin levels of all participants and in participants with CTE were low. Many participants had serum ferritin levels less than the normal lower range. The participants showed ID, at cutoff level of serum ferritin (41 μg/L), which was significant. Conclusion: Participants of this study had low serum ferritin levels at different definitions of ID, and the participants showed ID, which was significant. Hence, chronic diffuse hair loss was associated with decreased iron stores.
  4,248 239 -
Effect of lung squeeze technique and reflex rolling on oxygenation in preterm neonates with respiratory problems: A randomized controlled trial
Jaitty Kole, Deepa Metgud
January-June 2014, 7(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.135028  
Background and Purpose: Respiratory problems like RDS, pneumonia and acute respiratory failure in premature neonates are one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Decreased oxygenation and excess accumulation of secretion is common leading to increase in airway resistance, and complications like atelectasis requiring prolonged ventilatory assistance or oxygen support. Apart from convention chest physiotherapy techniques like percussion and vibration newer techniques like LST and vojta have been used to clear secretions, restore homogenous inflation of the lungs and improve oxygenation. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of CPT, LST and reflex rolling on oxygenation in preterm neonates with respiratory problems, in terms of blood gases and oxygen saturation. Materials and Methods: This ra ndomized controlled trial included 60 neonates with RDS and pneumonia with gestational age of 30 to 37 weeks under O 2 therapy. The participants were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group A received CPT, group B received LST with CPT and group C received Reflex rolling with CPT for 20 minutes duration per session at 0, 4 th and 8 th hour, three sessions per day, for a period of 2 weeks. Pre and post intervention values of pulse oximetry and Arterial Blood Gas was recorded to analyze oxygenation. Chest X-rays were taken on day 1 and last day. Results: The results showed within group improvements in SPO 2 , PaO 2 which was statistically significant (P < 0.001) on day 1, and post intervention on last day for all the groups whereas between groups comparison showed no significant difference with P value 0.480 and 0.258 respectively. Chest radiographs demonstrated re-expansion of collapsed airways. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the three treatment techniques viz. CPT, LST Technique and Reflex Rolling are safe and effective for improving Oxygenation in preterm neonates with respiratory problems and can be used in clinical settings.
  3,775 516 2
In vitro anthelmintic and antioxidant potential of fruits of Momordica charantia: A comparative study
Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty, Bitul Borah, BK Dey, Bapi Ray Sarkar, BJ Sahariah
July-December 2014, 7(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.148813  
Background and Purpose: Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) is used as both food and management of diverse human diseases science ancient time, including in the treatment of worm infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the comparative anthelmintic and anti-oxidant activity of juice and extracts of whole fruit, peels, and seed of M. charantia. Materials and Methods: In vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of whole fruit, fruit peels, seed and fresh juice whole fruit, peels of M. charantia was investigated against Indian adult earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Extracts and juices are also investigated for their anti-oxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH ) scavenging assay method. Results: Extracts and juice showed potent anti-oxidant and anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of fruit peel demonstrated strong DPPH scavenging activity (IC 50 = 29.02 ± 0.86 μg/ml), juice of fruit peel also produced good radical scavenging effect (57.30 ± 0.99 μmol TE/ml). Methanol extract of fruit peel showed potent anthelmintic effect which is similar to standard albendazole. Whole fruit and seed extract also produced significant anthelmintic effect. Whole fruit juice and peel juice showed similar but moderate in vitro anthelmintic effect. Conclusion: The wormicidal activity of extract and juice against earthworms suggests that they are effective against parasitic infections of humans. Results justify the use of fresh kerala juice by traditional medicinal practitioner to cure worm infection, and showed the potential to develop natural anthelmintic constitute from the fruit of the plant.
  3,669 417 -
Effectiveness of heparin flush and normal saline flush for the maintenance of patency of peripheral intracath line among the patients admitted to medical-surgical wards of selected hospital
Honnagouda Patil, Larissa Martha Sams
January-June 2014, 7(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.135029  
Background: Peripheral intracath line is the typical hospital I.V line put in the hand or forearm when patients are admitted to the hospital intravenous catheters represent the most common parenteral for medication administration. Maintenance of the patency of these peripheral intracath lines is important for minimizing patients discomfort and the expense associated with replacement. Keeping this in view a quasi experimental study was undertaken on effectiveness of Heparin flush and Normal Saline flush for the maintenance of patency peripheral intracath line among the patients admitted to medical surgical wards of selected hospital. Materials and Methods: An experimental research approach with quasi experimental design with multiple measures was used for the study. Results: The study was carried out in medical and surgical wards of A J Hospital and Research Centre, Mangalore. The sample comprised of patients between the age group of 20-60 years. Samples were selected by purposive sampling technique. The Study findings revealed that in Group I (Experimental group) the mean patency scores of 72 hours (Post test 6) were 1.50 ± 0.51, 1.50, whereas mean scores of before intervention (pre test) was 1 ± 0, 1 respectively. In Group II (Control group) the mean patency scores of 72 hours (Post test 4) were 1.90 ± 0.55, 2, whereas mean patency scores of before intervention (pre test) was 1 ± 0, 1 respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in patency sores of peripheral intracath line in Group I (F (5, 114) = 1.46, P < 0.05) and Group II (F (5, 114) = 2.10, P < 0.05) at different timings. This suggests that patency scores were same at different timings in both groups for 72 hours. There was no significant difference in patency scores of back flow, flow rate, resistance, infiltration, extravasation, and phlebitis between the Group I and Group II (t38 = 2.02, P < 0.05) at different timings. Thus it was inferred that patency of peripheral intracath line was maintained in the both Group I (Experimental group) and Group II (Control group) for 72 hours. Both heparin flush and normal saline flush were effective in the maintenance of patency of peripheral intracath line.
  3,682 316 -
Knowledge of pregnant women about congenital anomalies: A cross-sectional study in north of Iran
Pourmohsen Masoumeh, Khoshravesh Vahid, Alavi Majd Hamid, Khaleghinezhad Khosheh, Khayat Samira
January-June 2015, 8(1):41-47
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.158230  
Background: Proper knowledge about risk factors and prevention of congenital malformations in pregnant women can lead to primary prevention of disease. The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's knowledge about congenital anomalies, risk factors, and prevention in relation to their sociodemographic profile. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of the expecting mother's population was conducted over 3 months. Data collection was done through a questionnaire completed in face to face interviews using simple nonrandom sampling method in 150 pregnant women who visited the prenatal clinics in Rasht. The questionnaire contained 6 questions about specific knowledge and 12 questions for risk factors and prevention of congenital anomalies. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, as well as multivariate regression analysis was performed using SPSS 21 software. Results: The overall knowledge of pregnant women about congenital anomalies showed a significant relationship with age (P = 0.001) and the level of education (P = 0.000). However, there was not a significant relationship between overall knowledge and parity (P = 0.183) and the number of antenatal visits (P = 0.097). The participant who had High School and University education had the highest score in overall knowledge about the disorder. The age group 41-50 years had the lowest overall knowledge about the disorder. Conclusions: There is a need for public programs to increase awareness about congenital anomalies in pregnant women and people. Use of genetic counseling for families at risk for congenital anomalies is proposed.
  3,554 423 2
EDITORIAL
Rational antibiotic therapy
NS Mahantshetti
July-December 2015, 8(2):75-76
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.174230  
  1,128 2,708 -
WHO Millennium development goals and achievements so far
Gajanan S Gaude
July-December 2014, 7(2):65-69
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.148790  
  1,504 2,273 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Electrical injuries of the oral cavity: A menace to mankind
Nazish Baig, Nikita Parasrampuria, Babita Yeshwante, Gaurav Tated
January-June 2015, 8(1):11-17
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.158215  
The rarest of its kind, the electrical injuries of the commissure areas of the mouth pose a potential threat in terms of management to the practitioner. The most commonly affected young toddlers, in their teething period, chew onto the female end of the live extension wire cord. Saliva which acts a medium transports the electrical current to the fragile mucosa of the oral cavity thereby leading to the treacherous burn injuries. Since children have an overall lower fat component and different surface area to volume ratio, which impacts on the risk of deep tissue damage compared to adults with equivalent injury. The review outlines: (1) A detailed review of literature reflecting the various treatment modalities proposed by different practitioners worldwide and (2) the prosthetic therapy for the conservative management of the electrical injuries of the oral cavity.
  3,415 300 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
To assess candidal colonization and species diversity in the oral cavity of diabetic and nondiabetic denture wearers and correlation with the presence of candida on finger tips of the patients: An in vivo study
Navjot Kaur Boparai, Ulhas N Amasi, Raghunath Patil, Sheetal U Harakuni
January-June 2014, 7(1):45-51
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.135041  
Human oral cavity in health is normally colonized by different microbiological flora predominantly with Candida species. Wearing a removable denture and an immunologically deranged health is known to increase oral candidal colonization. The purpose of this study was to assess candidal colonization and species diversity in the oral cavity of diabetic and nondiabetic denture wearers and correlation with the presence of Candida on finger tips of the patients. 120 subjects in the age group of 40-70 years were included in the study. Three groups were formed, Group I: Diabetic, denture wearer, Group II: Nondiabetic denture wearer, Group III: Nondiabetic, nondenture wearer subjects. The oral samples from all the subjects were collected with oral rinse technique and were then inoculated on to the CHROMagar. For fingertip sampling, subjects placed their hands on sabouraud dextrose plate for 1 min and candidal growth was assessed and species were isolated using auxanometric plate method of sugar assimilation test. The mean number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Candida in Group I, Group II and Group III was 892.50, 590.00 and 152.50, respectively. Most commonly isolated species in diabetic denture wearer group were Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida gulliermondi and Candida parapsilosis. The mean number of colonies for fingertip contamination was more for diabetic denture wearers (1.50) as compared to nondiabetic denture wearers (1.00). In conclusion, candidal carriage (based on the CFU) was more in diabetic denture wearer patients than the nondiabetic denture wearers. C. krusei and C. kefyr were the two species of Candida found only in diabetic subjects. Furthermore, there was a correlation in the fingertip contamination and oral candidal colonization.
  3,131 293 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Are extravasation injuries “Negligence”?
Neeraj Nagpal, Nimisha Nagpal
Sep-Dec 2016, 9(3):247-250
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.196335  
Recent High Court and Supreme Court judgments have awarded large compensations for complications arising out of intravenous treatment. Extravasation of fluids and drugs is the most common complication of any medical procedure worldwide. Extravasation injury leading to gangrene occurs rarely and is due to factors related to patient characteristics, underlying disease, and the type of drug which is being injected. Human error rarely may be contributory to development of the extravasations and injury resultant thereof, but to label all of these complications as negligence by the application of “res ipsa loquitur” has serious consequences. High compensation risk for a complication which is faced universally by all doctors has the potential to raise the cost of this simple procedure.
  2,551 690 -
EDITORIAL
Challenges in delivering stroke care in India
Karkal Ravishankar Naik
Sep-Dec 2016, 9(3):245-246
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.196342  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of overweight /obesity among adolescent girls in Salem District, India
T Kowsalya, R Parimalavalli
July-December 2014, 7(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/2349-5006.148799  
Objective: In India, the proportions of overweight and obese people now co-exist with those who are undernourished. The current study attempted to estimate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent girls in Salem District, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at the Salem block in Salem District from November 2012 to March 2013. Totally 6619 school going adolescents had been included, their anthropometric measures include height (cm), weight (kg), waist (cm) and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Overweight and obese adolescents were identified based on their BMI. For comparison, girls with normal weight were selected by simple random sampling technique. All the selected girls were in the age group of 10-15 years, and they studied from 6 th to 10 th standard. Results: The overall rate of prevalence of overweight/obese among adolescent girls was found to be 454 (6.86%). The highest prevalence was observed at the age of 10-11 years (7.82). Mean anthropometric measures of overweight/obese adolescents were higher than normal girls. Mean anthropometric measures of normal and overweight/obese girls were significantly increased by age groups except hip circumference. BMI was highly influenced by weight followed by age, height, hip circumference and WHR of the overweight/obese girls. Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing in developing countries, among school going adolescent girls; weight and age were the major influencing factors of overweight/obesity compared with other anthropometric measures.
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