Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 1579
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-41

Menopause status and its determinants in rural North Karnataka


Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, KAHER, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission21-Jun-2019
Date of Acceptance17-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication23-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sudhirgouda H Patil
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, KAHER, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_159_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

BACKGROUND: Perimenopause symptoms need attention of health.care providers and public health personnel to enable the appropriate healthcare, including improving psychological makeup and for planning for further studies. Hence, the study was undertaken with an objective to study the menopause along with factors affecting the quality of life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross.sectional study has been carried out to investigate the factors affecting/related with perimenopausal symptoms, during February to July 2016, using proportional to population size inverse cluster sampling. The present study was conducted covering 712 women of age 40-55 years, comprised of 550 menopause, 40 surgical induced menopause and 122 yet to achieve menopause.
RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of menopaused women in other than gHindush and gMuslimsh were found higher than the reference group (Hindus). OR of menopause groups was statistically significant with gMildh heart discomfort, gMildh sexual desire, dryness of vagina, hot flushes, physical and mental exhaustion, depressive mood, anxiety, sleep problem, and irritability as compared with their respective reference groups (absence of symptoms). Similar results were exhibited by gMildh physical and mental exhaustion (OR = 2.22; P < 0.05), gModerateh depressive mood women (OR = 2.30; P < 0.05), gSevereh anxiety (OR = 1.84; P < 0.05), gMildh sleep problem (OR = 2.31; P < 0.05), and gMildh irritability (OR = 1.86; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Psycho.physiological changes were seen by heart discomfort, sexual desire problem, irritability, depressive mood, anxiety, hot flushes, sleep problems, physical and mental exhaustion, and dryness of vagina exhibited significantly higher in perimenopause women. Hence, well.planned and calibrated health education and necessary symptomatic treatment must always be arranged for the welfare in the perimenopause period.

Keywords: Emotional changes, menopause, psycho-medical anomalies, rural cross-sectional survey


How to cite this article:
Patil SH, Tyagi NK, Prasad JB. Menopause status and its determinants in rural North Karnataka. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2020;13:37-41

How to cite this URL:
Patil SH, Tyagi NK, Prasad JB. Menopause status and its determinants in rural North Karnataka. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 5];13:37-41. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2020/13/1/37/276415




  Introduction Top


Menopause is a physiological condition, defined as the cessation of menstruation for the past 12 months due to the loss of follicular activity of the ovaries.[1] Signs and symptoms of menopause were reported as vaginal dryness, hot flashes, disturbed sleep, urinary problems, and emotional changes.[2]

The distribution of commonly reported menopausal symptoms and their consequences (diseases) was night sweats (83.2%), hot flushes (76.4%), mood swings (72.5%), vaginal dryness (71.4%), irritability (67.5%), fatigue (66.8%), and loss of libido (66.4%).[3] Setorglo et al. reported joint pain (64.4%), weight gain (59.3%), memory lapses (53.6%), and sleep disorders (50.7%) as symptoms and their consequences in the perimenopause period.[4]

Perimenopause period causes physiological changes, with a lot of agony to the women. Hence, the perimenopause women with symptoms, including psychological changes, need the care from healthcare providers and public health personnel. Symptoms and their consequences during menopause visibly flushing, sleeplessness, headache, lack of concentration provide invaluable symptoms for health-care providers and public health personnel to enable the appropriate healthcare.[3] Hence, the study was undertaken with an aim to understand the menopausal agonies, with the objective to study the contribution of socio-psycho and menopause agonies during perimenopause period from 40 to 45 years.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional study comprising 712 rural women age 40–55 years were surveyed, using pre-coded and pre-tested data collection instruments from October 2016 to April 2017, in Rural Belagavi District of North Karnataka, by inverse cluster sampling. Pilot survey was carried out to standardize the data collection schedule.

Data on menopause anthropometric, menopausal symptoms, and associated psycho-social and menopause symptoms were collected, to study the menopause and its determinants.

Menopause symptoms including vaginal dryness have been graded as none, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe with respect to the status of the patient before perimenopause phase, as perceived by the patients and graded as per Likert's scale. The Ethical Clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethical Clearance Committee via reference number KLEU/Ethic/2015-16/D-118, Dated : 14-07-2015.

Statistical methods

The sample size was computed for anthropometric, menopausal symptoms, and associated psycho-social and menopause symptoms, keeping in mind the feasibility. The sample size was computed assuming 95% confidence interval (CI) and 10% expected error in the estimates.

The logistic regression analysis has been used to assess the impact of deterministic variates of perimenopause symptoms. Exponential of the coefficient of logistic regression estimates (eb) is defined as odds ratio (OR) in favor of the symptoms in menopause as compared to premenopause.

95% CI was computed as:



where, “a” is the menopausal women, “b” is not menopausal in reference group, and “c” and “d” are the similar figures for the study group for OR.

Data were cleaned for errors using Microsoft Excel, and analysis was carried out using theIBM, SPSS-22 version, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.


  Results Top


A home-to-home survey was carried out, covering 712 women of age 40–55, comprising 550 menopausal and 40 “surgically induced menopause,” and using inverse cluster proportion to population size sampling. Hence, to study the determinants of menopause; 712 perimenopause including 40 surgicalinduced menopause women formed the study material.

In [Table 1], menopause by religion reveals OR and the distribution of the study patients by religion. The OR of menopaused women in other than “Hindus'” and “Muslims” was 1.33 times (P<0.01) as compared to “Hindus.” The similar figure was as less as 0.6 times in “Muslims” (P<0.01). The highest proportion of menopausal women was in “Others” (83.9%) and least in “Muslims” (70.35%).
Table 1: Menopause by religion in rural woman of Belagavi, Karnataka, 2016-2017

Click here to view


In [Table 2], menopause by lifestyle diseases reveal OR and the distribution of the study patients in the rural woman by lifestyle diseases. The OR of menopaused women in body mass index (BMI) groups (18.5–24.9) was higher than in BMI groups (30 + and 25–29.9). OR was significantly different at P < 0.05. However, the distribution of patients in menopausal groups by BMI was not statistically different. OR in “Mild” heart discomfort was significantly higher (P<0.001), as compared to without any heart discomfort.
Table 2: Menopause by lifestyle diseases in rural woman of Belagavi, Karnataka, 2016-2017

Click here to view


[Table 3] shows menopause status by sexual problems reveal OR and the distribution of the study patients by sexual desire, dryness of vagina, and hot flushes in the rural woman. The OR of menopaused women in “Mild” sexual desire was significantly higher (OR = 1.6; P < 0.05) as compared to with “None” sexual desire problem. The sexual desire decreased in the other two groups (moderate and severe) to 0.8. The ORs in the dryness of the vagina and hot flushes increased significantly at P < 0.05 as compared to without dryness of the vagina and hot flushes. The distribution of the patients in menopause and nonmenopausal women varied significantly by sexual desire problem (P<0.05) and with hot flushes (P<0.001).
Table 3: Menopause by sexual problems in rural woman of Belagavi, Karnataka, 2016-2017

Click here to view


In [Table 4], menopause status by mental sickness exhibits OR and the distribution by physical and mental exhaustion, depressive mood, anxiety, sleep problem, and irritability in rural woman. The OR of menopausal women was higher in “Mild” (OR = 2.22; P < 0.05) as compared to in the absence of physical and mental exhaustion. Similarly, it was higher in “Moderate” depressive mood women (OR = 2.30; P < 0.05) as compared to none depressive mood women. The OR of menopausal was higher in “Severe” anxiety (OR = 1.84; P < 0.05), “Mild” sleep problem (OR = 2.31; P < 0.05), and in “Mild” irritability (OR = 1.86; P < 0.05) as compared to the absence of anxiety, sleep problem, and irritability groups, respectively.
Table 4: Menopause by mental sickness in rural woman of Belagavi, Karnataka, 2016-2017

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Menopause symptoms in order of extent vary with the most common hot flushes, followed by night sweat, vagina dryness, and mood swings.[4] Symptoms and their consequences of menopause provide invaluable input for health-care providers and public health personnel to enable the appropriate healthcare/health-care education.[3] Hence, cross-sectional study comprising 712 rural women of age 40–55 years were surveyed, during October 2016–April 2017, in North Karnataka, by inverse cluster sampling with proportion to population size with an objective, to study the menopause determinants, and hence that the necessary care for menopause women is planned and arranged.

OR of menopaused women in other than “Hindus” and “Muslims” was significantly higher as compared to reference group (Hindus), whereas the similar figure was as least as 0.6 times in “Muslims,” whereas the study from West also reported significant differences by religion though they did not have similar classification.[5]

OR of menopaused women in BMI group 18.5–24.9 was higher as compared to BMI groups of more than or equal to 25, this is note that the study population was rural, not obsessed for diet control or fast food; resulting in slimness or obesity; hence, findings are not in the line of urban populations, as the study comprising only menopause women indicate that the menopause transition was associated with changes in body fat composition.[6]

OR of menopaused women in “Mild Sexual Desire” was highest as compared to with “No Sexual Desire” problem. Whereas the sexual desire decreased in other two groups (moderate and severe), whereas 67.5% of menopausal women were reported sexually inactive by the study from Northern part of India using clinic-based data.[7]

ORs in dryness of vagina and hot flushes were observed significantly higher at P < 0.05 as compared to without dryness of vagina and hot flushes, with significant different distribution of the patients in menopause and nonmenopausal groups by sexual desire problem and hot flushes. Whereas 76.4% hot flushes and 42.3% vaginal dryness and decrease in sexual desire 36.2% have been reported.[7] Similar findings with varying proportion have been reported in symptoms as vaginal dryness and fatigue symptoms.[4],[8]

OR of menopausal women was the highest in “Mild” disturbed physical and mental exhaustion as compared to “None;” the similar findings have been reported by other researchers.[4] OR in “Moderate” depressive mood was found significantly higher than “None,” the similar findings of 66.8% mood swings have been reported during menopause.[4] Another study indicated 77.9% mood swings during menopause.[9]

In anxiety group, the OR of menopause was significantly higher in “Severe” anxiety group, “Mild” sleep problem, and in “Mild” irritability as compared to “None” anxiety, “No sleep problem,” and “None Irritability” groups, respectively; whereas the similar results were for anxiety (50%), sleep disorder (57.1%), and irritability (67.5%).[4]


  Conclusion Top


The proportion of menopausal women was higher in other than Hindu and Muslim religions. BMI could not show expected impact on menopause, maybe due to the rural setup of the study. psycho-physiological changes as seen by heart discomfort, sexual desire problem, irritability, depressive mood, anxiety, hot flushes, sleep problems, physical and mental exhaustion, and dryness of vagina exhibited significantly higher in perimenopause women; hence, well planned and calibrated health education along with necessary care are recommended to pacify perimenopause women.

Acknowledgment

We would like to acknowledge the Honorable Vice Chancellor, Prof. Dr. Vivek A. Saoji, and Prof. Dr. V. D. Patil, the Registrar, KAHER, for permitting and encouraging the research. We sincerely thank Ms. Rupa V. Chougule for extending help in the preparation of the article.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest



 
  References Top

1.
Dasgupta D, Ray S. Menopausal problems among rural and urban women from Eastern India. J Soc Behav Health Sci 2009;3:2.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Nordqvist C. Everything you Need to Know About Menopause; 2017. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/155651.php. [Last accessed on 2017 Jun 11].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World Health Organization. ICD-10 Version 2016 Website. World Health Organization; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Setorglo J, Keddey RS, Agbemafle I, Kumordzie S, Asiedu SA. Determinants of menopausal symptoms among Ghanaian women. Curr Res J Biol Sci 2012;4:507-12.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Yisma E, Eshetu N, Ly S, Dessalegn B. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 30-49 years in Gulele sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health 2017;17:124.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Toth MJ, Tchernof A, Sites CK, Poehlman ET. Menopause-related changes in body fat distribution. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;904:502-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Pathak N, Shivaswamy MS. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal women of urban Belagavi Karnataka. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res (KLEU) 2018;11:77.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sharma S, Tandon VR, Mahajan A. Menopausal symptoms in urban women. Alcohol 2007;4:3-41.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Schnatz PF, Banever AE, Greene JF, O'Sullivan DM. Pilot study of menopause symptoms in a clinic population. Menopause 2005;12:623-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed194    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded31    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]