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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 81-85

A study to evaluate cardiovascular responses by using treadmill and ergometer bicycle exercise in young adults


Department of Physiology, J. N. Medical College, KLE University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication17-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Alok Kumar Yadav
Department of Physiology, J. N. Medical College, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_89_17

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exercise is inevitable to keep good health status, advised for health promotion, diagnosis of diseases, and rehabilitation. Different types of exercise are performed as exercise tolerance, but tolerance is not same for every individual. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cardiovascular responses for three different intensities of exercise using treadmill and bicycle ergometer at fixed heart rate (HR) value in young healthy adults.
METHODS: After obtaining the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, a total of 130 participants were screened and 48 randomly selected male and female individuals with age group of 18–24 years and with normal body mass index. Selected participants are divided into three groups according to HR using WHO classification and Karvonen formula of exercise intensity. Sixteen individuals in each group start exercising for treadmill exercise at 3, 6, and 7.5 k/h, respectively, with zero inclination and for ergometer bicycle exercise at pedal frequency 50–60, 70–80, and 90–100 rpm, respectively, with 0 kg breaking resistance until calculated target HR is achieved. Cardiovascular parameters such as (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], and rate pressure product [RPP]) pre- and post-exercise were recorded, and data are subjected to statistical analysis in both modes of exercise.
RESULTS: SBP and RPP are linearly increased with increasing intensity of exercise and more observed in ergometer bicycling than treadmill exercise. Postexercise mean DBP among the three intensities of exercise: in mild exercise, there was negligible change in case of treadmill exercise and a higher mean DBP was recorded in case of ergometer bicycle exercise; in moderate exercise, value was slightly lower in treadmill exercise and slightly higher in ergometer bicycle exercise, but in severe exercise, mean DBP decreased in both treadmill as well as in ergometer bicycle exercise.
CONCLUSION: Each mode of exercise has its own advantage and disadvantage depends on individual's physical condition and requirement.

Keywords: Blood pressure, ergometer bicycle, exercise, maximum heart rate, rate pressure product, treadmill


How to cite this article:
Yadav AK, Bagi JG. A study to evaluate cardiovascular responses by using treadmill and ergometer bicycle exercise in young adults. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2018;11:81-5

How to cite this URL:
Yadav AK, Bagi JG. A study to evaluate cardiovascular responses by using treadmill and ergometer bicycle exercise in young adults. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 14];11:81-5. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2018/11/1/81/223435




  Introduction Top


Exercise is defined as a physical activity which is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive, practiced with the sole aim of improvement or maintenance of physical fitness.[1] Exercises are recommended for normal individuals as well as for cardiopulmonary patients to maintain their physical fitness, prevention, and control of cardiopulmonary diseases. Exercise also had a positive influence upon rehabilitation after episodes of disease; therefore, exercise is highly recommended to maintain the physiological, psychological, and emotional fitness of the person.[2] Aerobic exercises are most appropriate for this purpose. To do aerobic exercise, many methods are available, for example, running, jogging, walking, and cycling.[3] In today's busy life, usually bicycle ergometer and treadmill exercises are used to perform aerobic exercise.Motor-driven treadmill exercise is similar to walking or jogging or running depending on the speed of the treadmill motor. In a case of bicycle ergometer, exercise is similar to cycling and can be controlled voluntarily by pedaling the cycle with predefined resistance.[4] Both treadmill and bicycle ergometer are the most common modes of exercise testing tools and are effectively used in improving functional exercise capacity, to determine the fitness for an individual with cardiopulmonary risks and above the age of 40 years.[5] Cardiovascular exercise testing (CVET) provides an assessment of the integrative exercise responses involving the cardiovascular. CVET is noninvasive, dynamic physiological parameter overview which permits the evaluation of both submaximal and peak exercise responses and provides relevant information for clinical decision-making.[6] Physical fitness and intensity of aerobic exercises depend on individuals aerobic endurance, flexibility, strength, body composition, and variability in cardiovascular parameters.[7] As there is no appropriate protocol to match the cardiovascular parameter to the specific intensities of exercises of the individual, different types of exercise are performed as exercise tolerance is not same for every individual.[2] In the present study, we compared the two modes of exercise tests using different intensities to determine which mode of exercise test is a better diagnostic utility. Since heart rate (HR) difference gathered during exercise test seems to be an efficient approach for monitoring the intensity and duration of training. Thus, the purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the cardiovascular responses for three different intensities of exercise using treadmill and bicycle ergometer at fixed HR value in young healthy adults.


  Methods Top


After obtaining the ethical clearance from the institutional Human Ethical Committee, a total of 130 1st-year undergraduate allied health science students were screened. Out of 130, 48 participants were randomly selected (18–24 years) who had normal body mass index (BMI). Informed written consent was obtained prior enrolling in this study. Participants were instructed to arrive at the physiology research laboratory in relaxed and fully hydrated state at least 3 h postprandial, 24 h of abstinence from tea, coffee, tobacco, alcohol, and to avoid strenuous exercise 48 h preceding a test session. For each participant, a test was conducted at the same time of the day (±2 h) to minimize the effects of diurnal biological variation on the results. Selected participant's detailed history, general physical, and clinical examinations were done to rule out any underlying disease. Participants with any known medical or surgical illness or physical disability were excluded from this study. [Table 1] showed that selected participants were divided into three groups with 16 each, according to HR using the WHO classification and Karvonen formula of exercise intensity.[8],[9],[10]
Table 1: Participants were divided into three groups according to heart rate using WHO classification and Karvonen formula of exercise intensity

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The exercises were performed in each group in a single visit. The participant was assigned an exercise mode sequence in a pseudorandom manner based on recruitment. All individuals in each group start exercising for treadmill exercise at 3, 6, and 7.5 km/h, respectively, with zero inclination. In each group, the participant continued to exercise until steady HR was achieved. Once the steady HR was achieved, the treadmill inclination (1% or 2%) was gradually increased until the target HR was obtained. The participant continued exercise in calculated target HR.

Individuals also performed ergometer bicycle exercise at a pedal frequency of 50–60, 70–80, and 90–100 rpm, respectively, with 0 kg breaking resistance until calculated steady HR was achieved. Once the steady HR was achieved, the breaking resistance with 1 min was gradually increased until the target HR was obtained. The participant continued exercise in calculated target HR. For grade exercises (mild, moderate, and severe), intensity target HR values for each participant were calculated using the HR reserve method after adjusting the HR formula to improve the estimate of 40%, 60%, and 75% maximal oxygen consumption (vo2 max) for treadmill and ergometer cycle exercise.[11],[12],[13]

Treadmill and ergometer bicycle calibration setting was checked after every four tests. During exercise, once the HR reached a target HR within ± 5 beats, duration of time to achieve target HR and total duration of exercise in targeted HR was noted. HR during the exercise was monitored by Laser Fingertip pulse oximeter in every 10 s of interval.

Termination of exercise in both modes was done when the participant got exhausted or fatigued of leg muscles followed by a recording of parameters. Between modes of exercise, the participant was allowed to rest quietly in a seated position for 10 min. Water was provided during recovery. The participant continued the second mode of exercise after HR and BP returned to within ±5 of the baseline parameter. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded using digital BP monitor. Rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated using respective formulas.[7]

Statistical analysis

The baseline parameter was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The parameters between the groups were compared using paired t-test and “ANOVA” test (Where P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant).


  Results Top


[Table 2] and [Graph 1],[Graph 2],[Graph 3] shows SBP and RPP are linearly increased with increasing intensity of exercise, more observed in ergometer bicycling than treadmill exercise. Postexercise mean DBP among the three intensities of exercise: in mild exercise, there was negligible change in case of treadmill exercise and a higher mean DBP was recorded in case of ergometer bicycle exercise; in moderate exercise, values were slightly lower in treadmill exercise and slightly higher in ergometer bicycle exercise, but in severe exercise, mean DBP decreased in both treadmill as well as in ergometer bicycle exercise.
Table 2: Descriptive baseline data of the participants

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  Discussion Top


The present study showed higher SBP during cycling exercise compared with treadmill exercise and minimal change in DBP in both the modes of exercise. These findings were similar to few earlier studies.[14],[15],[16] However; another study reported higher SBP during treadmill exercise.[17] This controversy can be explained based on RPP which was higher with bicycle ergometer exercise even at constant HR. This study also showed similar result finding which indicated linear increased RPP with increased SBP during the different intensities of exercise.[18],[19] Fredarick et al. showed BP as an overall index of the metabolic load on the heart.[19],[20]

Several factors responsible for increase SBP during ergometer bicycle exercise as compared to treadmill exercise. In ergometer bicycle exercise with pronounced nonexercising muscles vasoconstrictive responses, smaller working muscle mass contributing pronounced resistance to blood flow, less mechanical efficiency, and less vagal stimulation increases SBP.[21],[22],[23],[24] Apart from this, unlike treadmill exercise, as the severity of intensity increases, cycling offering greater lower body intramuscular tension and greater upper body isometric contraction.[25] Few earlier hypothetical explain that during high-intensity cycling, most of the participants exercise above their lactate threshold and SBP increases nonlinearly above lactate threshold [26] and lactate threshold to be unlike between two modes of exercise.[27] However, bicycle and treadmill were constant HR at the time of BP measurement; therefore, BP differences between bicycle and treadmill may not completely depend on changes in blood lactate. It may be related to mechanical factors associated with increased blood volume and left ventricular volume overload with the severity of exercise.[28] Hence, SBP increases linearly with increased severity of exercise intensity during treadmill as well as ergometer bicycle exercise.[7]

The probable mechanism of the decrease in DBP response to mild and moderate treadmill exercise as compared to bicycle ergometer exercise for a given equivalent oxygen uptake values was due to less sympathetic activation but decrease in DBP during severe treadmill as well as ergometer bicycle with increased severity of exercise intensity. Probable mechanism of decreased DBP during exercise is due to the accumulation of metabolites and raised core body temperature, causes local vasodilatation of arterioles.[29],[14]

Limitation of study

Although the research has reached its aims; however, because of a time limit, this research conducted on small sample size and normal young individual. However, this study can be considered a normal study, and responses may not be generalized to cardiovascular patients.

Future scope of the study

The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the cardiovascular responses for three different intensities of exercise in young healthy adults and train the individual according to their fitness level. However, taking off normal consideration of cardiovascular responses, this study can be further extended to larger sample size with different age group and cardiovascular patient for health promotion and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases.


  Conclusion Top


Each mode of exercise has its own advantage and disadvantage depends on individual's requirement. Treadmill exercise has less strain on working myocardium and useful for strengthening upper and lower limb muscles. While exercising, weight causes more strain on the knee joint. It is on the other hand, ergometer exercise useful for strengthening of lower limb muscles and not advised for hypertensive patients. Apart from this, it is more economical, less space occupies, and no electricity is required. Therefore, while advising exercise for individual his or her physical condition and requirement have to be taken into consideration.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Mancini DM, Eisen H, Kussmaul W, Mull R, Edmunds LH Jr., Wilson JR, et al. Value of peak exercise oxygen consumption for optimal timing of cardiac transplantation in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Circulation 1991;83:778-86.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Fields LE, Burt VL, Cutler JA, Hughes J, Roccella EJ, Sorlie P, et al. The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 to 2000: A rising tide. Hypertension 2004;44:398-404.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Gobel FL, Norstrom LA, Nelson RR, Jorgensen CR, Wang Y. The rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation 1978;57:549-56.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Fredarick LG, Leonard AN, Richard RN, Charles RJ, Yang W. The Rate-Pressure Product as an Index of Myocardial Oxygen Consumption during Exercise in Patients with Angina Pectoris Circulation.1978; 57:549-56.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
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Blomqvist CG, Lewis SF, Taylor WF, Graham RM. Similarity of the hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise of small muscle groups. Circ Res 1981;48:I87-92.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
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Franklin BA. Exercise testing, training and arm ergometry. Sports Med 1985;2:100-19.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
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Tulppo MP, Mäkikallio TH, Laukkanen RT, Huikuri HV. Differences in autonomic modulation of heart rate during arm and leg exercise. Clin Physiol 1999;19:294-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
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Carter H, Jones AM, Barstow TJ, Burnley M, Williams CA, Doust JH, et al. Oxygen uptake kinetics in treadmill running and cycle ergometry: A comparison. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2000;89:899-907.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
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Di Bello V, Santini F, Di Cori A, Pucci A, Palagi C, Delle Donne MG, et al. Relationship between preclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function and insulin resistance in severe obesity: A Color Doppler imaging study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30:948-56.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
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    Tables

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