Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 40
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-27

Comparison of Vitamin “C” levels in naturally ripened and artificially ripened mangoes

Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication17-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Jayashree Neelakantha Majagi
Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.kleuhsj_191_17

Rights and Permissions

INTRODUCTION: Fruits are very good sources of micronutrients. In the present era, eating fruits is questionable due to hazardous effects of artificial ripener usage on fruits. Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6), a major antioxidant water-soluble vitamin, acts as a reducing agent for many metabolic reactions as a coenzyme. Since it is heat-labile, fruits remain as a prime source as they are eaten uncooked. Mangoes, Banana, and Papaya are the most commonly subjected fruits for artificial ripening. However, artificial ripeners such as ethephon and calcium carbide have antinutritional and hazardous effects on health. This study analyzed the effect of the second most commonly used artificial ripener ethephon on mangoes in comparing with naturally ripened mangoes.
STUDY PURPOSE: To fulfill the increasing fruit demand and for commercialization fastening of fruit ripening is done. The aim of the present study is to assess whether artificial ripening will affect the Vitamin “C” level in mangoes or no.
OBJECTIVES: Compare the Vitamin C levels in artificially ripened with naturally ripened mangoes.
METHODS: Vitamin C was analyzed using simple UV spectrophotometric method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent.
RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that the naturally ripened mangoes had a mean of 7.6 ± 6 mg/100 g more of Vitamin “C” than artificially ripened mangoes.
CONCLUSION: The Study concludes that the Vitamin C contents is more in naturally ripened mangoes than the artificially ripened mangoes with using 1000 ppm of ehtephon.

Keywords: Artificial ripening and mangoes, ascorbic acid, dinitro phenylhydrazen, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid)

How to cite this article:
Majagi JN, Jabannavar VB. Comparison of Vitamin “C” levels in naturally ripened and artificially ripened mangoes. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2018;11:25-7

How to cite this URL:
Majagi JN, Jabannavar VB. Comparison of Vitamin “C” levels in naturally ripened and artificially ripened mangoes. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jul 14];11:25-7. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2018/11/1/25/223424

  Introduction Top

Vitamin “C” is water-soluble antioxidant vitamin. Due to the presence of enediol, it acts as a reducing agent. It mainly acts as a coenzyme for most of the biological reactions such as collagen synthesis, bone mineralization, carnitine synthesis, cholesterol metabolism, red blood cells maturation, and helps in functions of leukocytes, hence, acts as an immune booster. It also has anticancerous properties.[1],[2],[3] Mango, a king of fruit, is an important commercial plant of India, primary source of mangiferine, an bioactive xanthanoid.[4] It is also an good source of Vitamin C and is commercial plant and it is one of the most commonly subjected fruit for artificial ripening for commercial purpose. Ethephon and Calcium carbide are the most commonly used artificial ripening agents among which calcium carbide is carcinogenic. Ethylene is a natural plant hormone responsible for growth and development of plants including fruit ripening. A small amount of ethylene in a concentration of 1–10 ppm is sufficient to ripe fruits.[5] However, ethephon, an artificial ethylene releasing substance is used in a dose of 100 ppm to 3500 ppm in an excess amount to fasten the ripening process for commercialization which may affect the nutritional values of fruits.[6]

  Methods Top

The study comprised 50 mangoes fruits collected from a single tree in different stages of development, equally divided into two batches, Batch “A” and “B.” Immature, under-ripened fruits, over-ripened fruits, and injured fruits were excluded from the study.

“A” batch comprised mangoes plucked in a mature raw stage [Figure 1]a, were subjected for artificial ripening by dipping for 1 min in 39% ethylene 1000 ppm (parts/million) solution and kept in an airtight chamber after wrapping in a straw till complete ripening stage was attained. On the 6th day, complete ripening was assessed manually by color change and softness. It was observed that color changed from green to fresh yellow color [Figure 1]b. “B” batch comprised mangoes ripened naturally on a tree itself [Figure 1]c. Completely ripened mangoes were subjected to Vitamin “C” analysis after preparation of the samples. Mango fruits pulp was extracted by hang juicer, 5 g of fruit pulp was homogenized with 5% metaphosphoric acid, and 10% acetic acid solution, for Vitamin C stabilization, i.e., to avoid oxidation of Vitamin C. Analysis was performed using simple UV spectrophotometric method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) reagent.[7] The procedure is shown in [Table 1].
Figure 1: (a) Batch A - On the day of collection-Raw in stage, (b) Batch A - On the sixth day of ethephon treatment, (c) Batch B - Naturally ripened mangoes on the day of collection, (d) Graph No 1-Mean values of Vitamin C in mg/100 g of fruit pulp

Click here to view
Table 1: Test Procedure

Click here to view

  Results Top

The results of present study showed that the naturally ripened mangoes had a mean of 7.6 ± 6 mg/100 g more of Vitamin “C” than artificially ripened as shown in Figure d (Graph 1). Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test. The “t” value (10.47), was statistically significant at P = 0.05 at 48° of freedom for combined sample Figure d: Graph 1. (Graph No. 1-Mean values of Vitamin C).

  Discussion Top

Rahmankhan et al. did a study on determination of Vitamin C content in various fruits and vegetables using simple UV spectrophotometric method. In this study, the reliability of the method was calculated by the percentage of standard deviation and confirmed by the consideration of expected interferences such as diketogulonic acid and extracted glucose. The study concluded simple UV spectrophotometric method using DNPH reagent is an excellent method to analyze the Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables.[7]

In this study, we analyzed Vitamin “C” levels in naturally ripened and artificially ripened mangoes and compared between the two batches. Naturally ripened mangoes showed higher Vitamin “C” values. The rise in the value might be due to more time taken by the mangoes to ripe on the tree and hence that more starch got converted into Vitamin “C.” It also could be because of ethylene suppressing the action of Vitamin “C” synthesis. A study conducted in Malaysia by Hakim et al. on selected samples of pineapple, banana, and tomatoes on Vitamin C and β-carotene values in naturally ripened, ethylene treated and market samples. The naturally ripened sample was having highest values than ethylene treated and the market sample was having least Vitamin C levels. There was mean 3–4 mg/100 g Vitamin C reduction in ethylene treated and market samples were having mean 6–7 mg/100 g of fruit pulp of fewer Vitamins C.[8] Another study was done by Lopes et al., in Brazil, on the effect of exogenous ethylene on nutritional values of strawberry fruits. They have found more Vitamin “C” in ethylene injected strawberries in comparison with untreated controls. The study concluded that ethylene treatment significantly increases Vitamin “C” levels.[9] The variations in the study results could be because of difference in the analytical procedure they used and different habitat of fruits. In our study, it was found that the Vitamin “C” level was 7–8 mg of more Vitamin “C” in naturally ripened than artificially ripened mangoes. The reason could be, in naturally left mangoes, there was a more time for the starch to get converted into ascorbic acid through the glucuronic acid pathway and Vitamin “C” levels could be decreased due to suppression of mitochondrial enzyme L-Ga1 lactate dehydrogenase which is a regulating enzyme of the last step in Vitamin “C” synthesis as mentioned in earlier.[6]

  Conclusion Top

On comparing the Vitamin “C” values between artificially ripened and naturally ripened mangoes, a statistically significant difference between the two batches was seen. Naturally ripened mangoes are having 7 mg–8 mg of more Vitamin C than artificially ripened mangoes using 1000 ppm of ethephon.

Future study and implications

There are other sources of Vitamin “C” supplement in the diet, which can maintain the plasma Vitamin “C” levels to the normal. However, it is questionable that in the market, is it possible to wait till 6–7 days for ripening with ethephon?. If more concentration of ethephon is used, it may further reduce the Vitamin “C” levels. Hence, a proper check by the concerned authority should be kept to see what kind of artificial ripening agent is used and at what percentage the market fruits were ripened, including its effects on nutritional values of fruits and hazardous effects on health. The government should regulate the quality of every fruit sample of the market for the benefit of human being.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Vasudevan DM. The Text Book of Biochemistry, Water Soluble Vitamins. 6th ed. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2013. p. 408-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
Delvin TM. Text Book of Biochemistry, with a Clinical Correlation. Part IV, 26.8. other water soluble vitamins. 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2010. page 1084.  Back to cited text no. 2
Turley SD, West CE, Horton BJ. The role of ascorbic acid in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and in the pathogenesis of artherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1976;24:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Matkowski A, Kuś P, Góralska E, Woźniak D. Mangiferin – A bioactive xanthonoid, not only from mango and not just antioxidant. Mini Rev Med Chem 2013;13:439-55.  Back to cited text no. 4
Lee SK, Kader AA. Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing Vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biol Technol 2000;20:207-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
Thapa U, Kumar.BA, Gurung.D, Monda.R. Bio-efficacy evaluation of ethephon 39% Sl on tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) fruits. Curr Agri Res J 2017;5:2.  Back to cited text no. 6
Rahmankhan MM, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Begum SA. A simple UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of Vitamin C content in various fruits & vegetables. J Biol Sci 2006;6:388-92.  Back to cited text no. 7
Hakim MA. Role of health hazardous ethephon in nutritive values of selected pineapple, banana and tomato. J Food Agric Environ 2012;10:247-51. Available from: www.world-food.net. [Last accessed on 2018 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 8
Lopes PZ, Fornazzari IM, Almeida AT, Galvão CW, Etto RM, Inaba J, et al. Effect of ethylene treatment on phytochemical and ethylene-related gene expression during ripening in strawberry fruit FragariaxAnanassa cv. Camino real. Genet Mol Res 2015;14:16113-25.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded188    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal