|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 331-334
A morphometric study of femoral length, anterior neck length, and neck-shaft angle in dry femora: A cross-sectional study
Prabha Nand Chaudhary, VS Shirol, Rajendra D Virupaxi
Department of Anatomy, J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||5-Sep-2017|
Prabha Nand Chaudhary
J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: As the environment plays an important role in the development, the regional variation of the femur bone is influenced by geographical area, sex, stature, and heredity. In the present study, measurements on the adult human dry femora have been carried out. The knowledge of variations in the parameters of dry femora will help the orthopedicians and also assist prosthetists to design a suitable prosthesis for restoration of normal neck-shaft angle (NSA) and will also help forensic anthropologists to determine the sex.
Objectives: The objectives of this present study is to determine the various parameters including femoral length, anterior neck length, and NSA of femur among Indian population and to compare them with the data available in the literature.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 100 adult dry human femora of unknown age and sex (50 right side and 50 left side), collected from the Department of Anatomy and students of J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
Results: In the present study, the length of femur ranged from 336 to 485 mm with the mean of 413.15 mm. Length of right femur ranged from 346 to 472 mm with the mean of 409.4 mm and that of left femur ranged from 336 to 485 mm with the mean of 416.9 mm. The anterior neck length of femur ranged from 20 to 40 mm with the mean of 28.8 mm. The anterior neck length of right femur ranged from 20 to 38 mm with a mean of 28.8 mm and that of left femur ranged from 21 to 40 mm with the mean of 28.8 mm. The NSA ranged from 115° to 140° with the mean of 127.21°. In the right femur, it ranged from 115° to 137° with the mean of 126.78°, and in the left femur, it ranged from 119° to 140° with the mean of 127.64°.
Conclusions: There was no comparative difference between the values of right and left sides for all parameters. The values observed for all three parameters were greater in the Western world than in the present study, and it was concluded that Western people were taller and heavier than the average Indians, thus showing the regional variation. Clinically, this study plays an important role for orthopedicians and prosthetists to build suitable prostheses for Indians.
Keywords: Anterior neck length, dry femur, femoral length, implant, neck-shaft angle
|How to cite this article:|
Chaudhary PN, Shirol V S, Virupaxi RD. A morphometric study of femoral length, anterior neck length, and neck-shaft angle in dry femora: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2017;10:331-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Chaudhary PN, Shirol V S, Virupaxi RD. A morphometric study of femoral length, anterior neck length, and neck-shaft angle in dry femora: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jun 17];10:331-4. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/331/214010
| Introduction|| |
The morphometric study of femur bone serves helpful data to understand various aspects of clinical disease conditions, including common site of fracture, changes in osteoporosis, and associated congenital anomalies as well as medicolegal cases.
The femur or thigh bone is the longest and the strongest bone in the body. It has a shaft, upper end and lower end. The upper end bears a rounded articular head, projecting medially upward and slightly forward on its short neck. The articular rounded head of the femur articulates with the cup-shaped fossa of the acetabulum to form the hip joint. The lower end is more massive, being in the form of a double knuckle or condyles, articulating with tibial condyles, and forms the knee joint. Its length is associated with striding gait and its strength with the weight and muscular forces which it must withstand. Its shaft is almost cylindrical in most of its length and bowed with a forward convexity. The neck of the femur, which is about 5 cm long, connects the head and the shaft, with which it forms an angle of about 125°. This arrangement facilitates the movement of the hip joint and enables the lower limb to swing clear of the pelvis.
The neck-shaft angle (NSA) is formed by the axis of the neck and long axis of the femoral shaft. The NSA and angle of inclination are also known as Collo-diaphyseal angle (CDA) of femur.
The NSA is based on age, stature, and width of pelvis. When NSA is more than 135°, it is termed coxa valga. When the angle is < 120°, it is termed coxa vara. In early infancy, the NSA is about 150°, in childhood 140°, in adult about 125°, and in old age about 120°. Hence, as the age advances, NSA decreases.
The NSA is smaller in female because of the wider pelvic and greater obliquity of the shaft of the femur.
The operations on the upper end of the femur are one of the most common orthopedic surgical practices which are conducted for the restoration of normal morphology as well as to remove pathology of femur. The anthropometric parameters of the Western region are comparatively different from Indians because the proximal end of femur varies in different ethnic groups with respect to their build, physique, habits, and genetic makeup. The diagnosis and treatment of proximal ends of femoral fracture depend on good knowledge of the angle of inclination. The bony markers like upper end of femur such as the head and neck of femur play an immense role in determination of femoral length, and therefore, femoral length and stature are of anthropological and forensic significance.
The human bones play an important role for identification of sex in anthropological and medicolegal cases. A nonmetrical (morphological) method such as the visual inspection of bone morphology is completely based on the ability and experience of an observer for identification of sex. When entire bones of human are available, the identification of sex becomes comparatively easy. The skull and pelvis are the most reliable bones for this purpose. However, one does not always have a complete pelvis or skull in medicolegal cases, and therefore, it is important to be able to assess sex from other parts of the bone as well.
The Westerners and Indians have variable anthropometric measurements for normal upper end of femora.
The present study is being undertaken as there is a need for more knowledge about morphometric variations of femoral length, anterior neck length, and NSA of femur bones. Therefore, the present study provides a guideline to orthopedic surgeons and biomedical engineers for the manufacture of suitable implants (prosthesis) for Indians.
| Materials and Methods|| |
In the present study, we have used 100 (50 right and 50 left sides) adult dry femora of unknown age and sex collected from the Department of Anatomy and students of J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, and studied at J. N. Medical College, Belagavi. Fractured and remodeled bones were excluded from the study. All the bones which were fully ossified belonging to the adult persons were collected for study. The 100 femora were studied for the following measurement:
- The femoral length: With the help of osteometric board
- The anterior neck length of femur: With the help of digital vernier caliper
- The NSA: With the help of goniometer.
The femoral length is the length of maximum vertical distance between upper end of the head of femur and lowest point on femoral condyles. The anterior length of femoral neck is the distance between the base of the head and intertrochanteric line at the junction of the front of the neck with shaft. The NSA is formed by the axis of the neck with the axis of the shaft. The axis of the neck and axis of the shaft were measured, respectively, as the line joining the two center points on anterior surface of the neck and line joining the two center point on anterior surface of shaft. [Figure 1] shows femoral length, [Figure 2] anterior neck length, and [Figure 3] NSA.
| Result and Discussion|| |
In the present study, the mean NSA of right femur was 126.78°, and in the left side femur, it was 127.64°. It was also observed that NSA of right femur ranged from 115° to 137° and that of left femur ranged from 119° to 140° [Table 1]. Our study results are in agreement with the studies of Issac B et al. (2015), from Vellore, India and Khaleel N et al. (2014), Tirupati, India. The values obtained from the studies by Gujar S et al. (2013), from Gujarat, India, Khan SM et al. (2014), Davangere, India, and De Sousa EB et al. (2010), Brazil, were greater than the values obtained from Belagavi in the present study. Hence, it indicates that the values are different in different regions of India which shows the regional variations. From the present study, it was reported that there was no significant difference between right and left femur. Hence, values obtained from a present study of NSA provide useful guidelines to prosthetists and orthopedic surgeons to construct suitable implants [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4].
|Table 2: Comparison of mean femoral length in different regions on right and left sides|
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|Table 3: Comparison of mean anterior neck length of femur in different regions on right and left sides|
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|Table 4: Comparison of mean neck-shaft angle of femur in different regions on right and left sides|
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| Conclusions|| |
In the present study, the mean femoral length was 409.4 mm on right side and 416.9 mm on left side. The mean anterior neck length was 28.8 mm on right side and 28.8 mm on left side. The mean NSA of femur was 126.78° on right side and 127.64° on left side. There was no significant difference between right and left femur bones. The result of the present study shows that the dimensions of Indian femora vary from that of the Western population. Therefore, this study will help the biomechanical engineers to design suitable implants for Indians. The limitation of this study has been a small sample size. Hence, a study with a larger sample size is needed. Gender and age of the bones have not been taken into account in the present study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]