|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 288-291
Assessment of knowledge regarding hazards of tobacco use among police personnel in Belagavi city: A cross-sectional study
Sudheer Shivalingappa Mang1, Appasaheb S Wantamutte2, Ashwini Narasannavar1, Mubashir Angolkar1
1 Department of Public Health, J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, USM-KLE's International Medical Programme, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||5-Sep-2017|
Sudheer Shivalingappa Mang
Shivalingappa Mang, Department of Public Health, J. N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Tobacco is a serious threat to health and ranks second as a cause of death globally, and it also ranks fourth in its input to years of life lost. The worldwide tobacco related mortality rate reached up to 4 million per year in 1998 and is expected to become 10 million per year in 2030. This is more than the total deaths from tuberculosis, malaria, maternal, and major childhood conditions combined.
Objective: The aim is to assess the level of knowledge regarding hazards of tobacco use among police personnel in Belagavi city.
Methodology: This study design was a cross-sectional study conducted in Belagavi city. Data collected from Civil Police Department of all 22 police stations, involving 120 police officers from different ranks from different police stations, the pilot study was done in one police station with 10% of total sample size. The duration of the study was August 2015 to February 2017. The study data were collected through pretested structured questionnaire from February 2016 to January 2017. Before collecting the data, the written informed consent was obtained from the police personnel. Based on the objective, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: The 16.7% of police personnel had the average knowledge and 80.8% were had good knowledge about hazards of tobacco use.
Conclusion: The majority police personnel had average and good knowledge about hazards of tobacco use.
Keywords: Cross-sectional study, police personnel, smoking, tobacco
|How to cite this article:|
Mang SS, Wantamutte AS, Narasannavar A, Angolkar M. Assessment of knowledge regarding hazards of tobacco use among police personnel in Belagavi city: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2017;10:288-91
|How to cite this URL:|
Mang SS, Wantamutte AS, Narasannavar A, Angolkar M. Assessment of knowledge regarding hazards of tobacco use among police personnel in Belagavi city: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jun 17];10:288-91. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/288/214000
| Introduction|| |
Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in several regions of the world. It has assumed the dimension of an epidemic resulting in enormous disability, disease, and death. Globally, it is estimated that 5 million preventable deaths occur every year, attributable to tobacco use. At this rate, the number of such deaths is expected to double by 2020. India has been very conscious and concerned about the harmful effects of tobacco use, disease burden and related social and economic costs of health care. Trends of smoking are changing in developing and developed countries. Although smoking is declining in most of the developed countries due to intense public health awareness and measures, it is increasing in the developing countries due to massive Promotional activities of cigarette companies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 800 million smokers in the developing countries in 1997 as compared to 300 million in the developed world (WHO, 2002).
In India, tobacco is used in a wide variety of ways: smoking, chewing, sniffing, etc. Beedi smoking is the most popular form of tobacco use.
Especially in a rural area due to low cost while cigarette smoking is more common in urban areas, hence tobacco industry is flourishing.
India has over 100 million adult smokers, the second highest number of smokers in the world after China. About 1 million adult deaths occur from smoking per year.
There is still the issue of passive smoking. An estimated 10% tobacco-related deaths are caused due to passive smoking. When the number of active smokers rises it is also coupled with the threat of passive smoking. Over 40% of children have at least one smoking parent and according to WHO data, children accounted for 28% of the deaths attributable to passive smoke. So, a lot still needs to be done to bring down smoking rates. The reports state that prevalence of tobacco use is 27% in Karnataka. One of the constituents of tobacco is nicotine which is highly addictive; it is the stimulant and contributes to the dependence to tobacco consumption.
To assess the level of knowledge about tobacco use among police personnel.
| Methodology|| |
- This study design - a cross-sectional study
- Study population - police personnel of all ranks of Civil Department
- Study period - 10 months
- Data collection and tools - Data collected from Civil Police Department of all 22 police stations in Belagavi city, Karnataka, India. The questionnaire comprises two parts. The first part is about sociodemographic characteristics of participants the second part is about knowledge regarding hazards of tobacco use among police personnel
- Ethical clearance obtained from the Institution of Ethical committee J. N. Medical College, Belagavi
- The pilot study was done in one police station (10% of total sample size). Before collecting the data, the written informed consent was obtained from the police personnel. The sample size was calculated using the formula as follows:
- Sample size:
n = 4 pq/ d2
Where n = sample size
p = tobacco use rate among police personnel 50%
q = 100 – p, q is 50
d = Relative error 10% of p
= approximately 10
Considering 20% attrition rate
Total participants = 120
In Police Inspector (PI), Police Sub Inspector (PSI), Assistant Police Sub Inspector (ASI), Civil Head Constable (CHC), Civil Police constable (CPC) out of 796 police personnel were recruited by proportionate sampling method as follows: Belagavi city 22 police stations are there, 796 police personnel are working in five different ranks like
CPC = 466 × 120 ÷ 796 = 70
CHC = 210 × 120 ÷ 796 = 31
ASI = 60 × 120 ÷ 796 = 09
PSI = 60 × 120 ÷ 796 = 09
PI = 12 × 120 ÷ 796 = 01
Data were analyzed in SPSS Version 20 (IBM) and the question has been re-arranged according to the assessment of knowledge, regarding tobacco use among police personnel.
In this study, we considered the average knowledge score if the score was mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD), the good knowledge score was mean + 1SD, and poor knowledge score was mean − 1SD.
| Results|| |
In the present study, maximum police officers 45 (37.7%) were in the age group of 30–39 years, followed by 35 (29.2%) were in the age group of 40–49 years and 26 (21.7%) were of the age group of 50 and above years. Remaining 14 police officers (11.7%) were in the age group of 20–29 years. Of 120 participants, 83.3% of males and 16.7% were females. 108 (90%) were married and 12 (10%) were unmarried. 117 (97.5%) were Hindus, followed by 2 (1.7%) Muslims, and 1 (0.8%) belonged to others religion. 64 (53.3%) were from other backward classes (OBC), 19 (15.9%) from scheduled caste, 9 (7.5%) were from the scheduled tribe and 28 (23.3%) belonged to general caste [Table 1]. 56 (46.7%) participants had completed preuniversity education, 6 (5%) studied high school education, 51 (42.5%) did under-graduation, and 7 (5.8%) had completed postgraduates degree. 3 (2.5%) were PIs, 10 (8.3%) PSIs, 9 (7.5%) were ASIs, 47 (39.2%) were CHC and maximum 51 (42.5%) were CPC [Table 1].
Among 120 study participants, 119 (99.2%) were aware about harmful effects of tobacco use, whereas 1 (0.8%) was unaware about the harmful effects of tobacco consumption. 116 (96.7%) were aware that smoking will harm the nonsmoker (passive smoker) nearby smoker and 4 (3.3%) were unaware about passive smoker. 116 (96.7) knew about the law regarding tobacco use and 4 (3.3%) were unaware about it. 102 (85%) were aware about nicotine content in tobacco product and 18 (15%) were unaware about it [Table 2].
Maximum 97 (80.8%) of the study participants had good knowledge, 20 (16.7%) had average knowledge, and 3 (2.5%) had poor knowledge about hazards of tobacco use [Table 3].
| Discussion|| |
This is the first study conducted in Belagavi city, Karnataka. The present study was conducted among police personnel and the results are discussed with other similar studies in different places worldwide.
In this study, of 120 participants, 14 (11.7%) participants were in the age group between 20 and 29 years, 45 (37.7%) participants were between 30 and 39 years, and 35 (29.2%) respondents aged between 40 and 49 years and 26 (21.7%) participants were above the age group of 50 years.
Similar study conducted among Pakistani soldiers it revealed that maximum number of Pakistani army soldiers, belonged to the age group between 30 and 40 years. Another study conducted among central reserve police personnel's 62.3% belonged to the age below 35 years, and 37.7% were of the age above 35 years.
In our study, out of 120 police officers, 100 (83.3%) were males and 20 (16.7%) were females. Similarly, a study conducted in Mathura city, out of 475 participants 473 (99.6%) were males and 2 (0.4%) were females participants. These findings are similar to the present study findings in the study.
In our study, out of 120 police officers 108 (90%) participants were married, 12 (10%) were unmarried. Whereas similarly study conducted at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, most of them reported that 72.0% were married and 28% were unmarried.
In our study, majority of police officers, 117 (97.5%) were Hindus, 64 (53.3) study participants were from OBC, 56 (46.7%) participants had completed preuniversity education, 51 (42.5%) did undergraduate degree, and 7 (5.8%) had completed postgraduates degree. The findings are similar to a study conducted at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, revealed that 82% of the military participants had college or higher education.
Knowledge towards hazards of tobacco use
Overall 97 (80.8%) of study participants had good knowledge, 20 (16.7%) had the average knowledge and 3 (2.5%) had poor knowledge about hazards of tobacco use.
| Conclusion|| |
The overall knowledge of police personnel regarding hazards of tobacco use was good. Most of the participants agreed to have a strict implementation of laws against tobacco use.
The police personnel needs to have training programs and continuous health education related to tobacco use for the police personnel regarding hazards of tobacco use.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Derek R, Devine S, Peter A, Tatsuya I. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officer. The Kurume medical journal. 2005 Feb; 52; 63-65.
Polonio IB, Saruhashi T, Endo C, Kiso KM, Stirbulov R. Smoking cessation program for military police officers: The Brazilian experience. Arq Med Hosp Fac Cienc Med Santa Casa São Paulo 2015;60:122-5.
Arora M. Tobacco Users in India Decline. Public Health Foundation of India. Available from: http://www. Mattersindia.com
. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 09; 9:00 PM].
Sinha DN. Tobacco control in schools in India (India global youth tobacco survey and global school personnel survey, 2006). New Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2006.
Singh A, Bhambal A, Saxena S, Tiwari V, Tiwari U. Frequency of addictive habits and its association with oral diseases among a cross section of Indian police personnel connotation. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016;26:403-7.
Alan L, Herb H, Judy A, Sherrie P, Col Jeffrey A, Cigrang B, Judith S, et al
. Smokeless Tobacco Use in Military Personnel. Military Medicine.2007 Dec; Vol. 172:1300-1305.
Spalj S, Peric D, Mlacovic Zrinski M, Bulj M, Plancak D. Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: A cross-sectional study. Croat Med J 2012;53:461-9.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]