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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 262-268

The effect of periodontal status and occlusal support on masticatory performance: A cross-sectional study


Department of Periodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Priyanka Subramanian Iyer
82, Gangambika Hostel, JNMC Campus, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kleuhsj.ijhs_435_16

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Background: The destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis affects the sensory function of the periodontal ligament, reduces the mechanical support of teeth, and ultimately results in reduced masticatory performance in natural dentitions. Research on those who have lost a large number of teeth and the effect of periodontal status on masticatory ability remains unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the effect of periodontal status and occlusal support on masticatory performance among various age groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients included in the study were divided into three groups according to the severity of periodontal disease and occlusal support as healthy controls– A1 (Group 1), moderate periodontitis– B1 (Group 2), and severe periodontitis– C1 (Group 3) based on Community Periodontal Index (WHO 1987) and Eichner's Index (Eichner 1990). They were further categorized into age groups of 20–30, 30–40, 40–50, and 50–60 years, and equal male to female ratio was maintained among all groups. The masticatory performance was assessed by making patients chew a test gummy jelly freely 30 times and expectorate it into a clean cup. To eliminate the remaining glucose sticking to the surface, it was subjected to running water for 5 min and spun in a magnetic stirrer (10 min, 400 rpm) till it completely dissolved. A small amount of the supernatant was collected, and glucose estimation was done using a glucometer. The glucometer values were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in the masticatory performance when Group 3 was compared to Group 2 and Group 1. In addition, there was a decrease in the masticatory performance among females compared to males and a progressive decline in the masticatory performance with advancing age. Conclusion: All groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the masticatory performance with increase in the severity of periodontal disease and decrease in occlusal support. In addition, there was a decrease in the masticatory performance with an increase in age and males showed a superior masticatory performance than females.


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