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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-11

Contraceptive practice among married women in urban areas catered by a medical college in Belagavi, Karnataka


Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication18-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. K Kruthika
Department of Community Medicine, KLE University's Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-5006.198573

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Population explosion is one of the most hazards to the development of India. The most effective way to control this is by reducing birth rate using contraception.
Objective: To know the prevalence of contraceptive use among married women.
Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among married women aged 15-44 years residing in three urban areas of Belagavi using predesigned and pretested questionnaire after obtaining informed consent.
Results: The prevalence of contraceptive use in the present study was 353 (58.8%), among them 96 (16.0%) were condom user, 113 (18.9%) were using intrauterine device, 26 (4.3%) were practicing rhythm method, 20 (3.3%) of them were using oral contraceptive pill, and 98 (16.3%) were practicing sterilization method.
Conclusion: Prevalence rate of contraceptive use was relatively less. Improving female literacy and proper counseling of couples for family planning would help improve the prevalence rate.

Keywords: Contraceptive, married women, prevalence, urban areas


How to cite this article:
Kruthika K, Metgud CS, Mallapur M D. Contraceptive practice among married women in urban areas catered by a medical college in Belagavi, Karnataka. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2017;10:9-11

How to cite this URL:
Kruthika K, Metgud CS, Mallapur M D. Contraceptive practice among married women in urban areas catered by a medical college in Belagavi, Karnataka. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 17];10:9-11. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2017/10/1/9/198573


  Introduction Top


India is the second most populous country in the world even though being first country in the world to initiate National Family Planning Program in 1952 with the objective of reducing birth rate.[1] In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns, population control is a far-flung dream to achieve.[2] Proper use of family planning methods is the key to prevent unplanned pregnancies,[3] unsafe abortions, and in turn reduce population growth.

Contraceptive prevalence is also an indicator to access maternal and child health including family planning services which is one of the eight elements of primary health care.[4] Furthermore, an increase in contraceptive use can contribute to decline in child and maternal mortality and avert high-risk pregnancies by regulating the pregnancy interval.[5] Thus, it is necessary to know the need and practice of contraception among married women. Thus, the present study was performed to explore the current status of contraceptive use in urban areas of Belagavi.

Objective

To know the prevalence of contraceptive use among married women.


  Methodology Top


The present community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three field practice areas, namely, Ashoknagar, Ramnagar, Rukmininagar of Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, among married women aged 15-44 years residing in these study areas. The study was conducted over a period of 1 year from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, and sample size was calculated taking prevalence of contraceptive use as 40%.[6] The sample size was 600.

As population of eligible couple in all three health centers was almost in the same range, we selected 230 participants from each urban health center. About thirty extra participants from each study, area was selected to take care of exclusion criteria. Married women between the age group of 15-44 years and who were permanent residents of study area were included in the study. Women who have attained menopause, undergone hysterectomy, and with primary or secondary infertility were excluded from the study. Sampling frame was available. Participant selection was done by computer-generated random number. Data were collected researcher using predesigned and pretested questionnaire by interviewing after taking written informed consent. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS trial version 21.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, Newyork).


  Results Top


In the present study which was done among the married women in three urban field practice areas of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College showed that the age of the married women ranged from 20 to 42 years, and the mean age (± standard deviation [SD]) of the respondents was 29 ± 4.52 years. The age of study participant's husbands in the study ranged from 24 to 56 years, and mean age (±SD) was 35.21 ± 5.54 years. The age of marriage ranged from 18 to 28 years, and the mean (±SD) age of the marriage was 20.35 ± 2.00 years.

Out of 600 respondents studied, 302 (50.3%) women were Hindus, followed by 234 (39%) Muslims, 46 (7.7%) Christians, 15 (2.5%) Sikhs, and the least were 3 (0.5%) who belonged to Jain religion. About 347 (57.8%) of the study participants belonged to nuclear family, 253 (42.2%) to joint family. Majority 585 (97.5%) of the women were literates, and only 15 (2.5%) of them were illiterates. Out of 585 literates, 128 (21.3%) of them had studied up to primary school, 172 (28.7%) up to secondary school, 210 (35.0%) studied beyond SSLC, and 75 (12.5%) were graduates. Majority 494 (82.3%) of the women were housewives.

Most 226 (37.6%) of the participants had the duration of married life ranging between 6-10 years, followed by 178 (29.7%) between 11 and 15 years, 139 (23.2%) between 1 and 5 years, and 57 (9.5%) had ≥ 15 years of married life. Among the 600 respondents, 280 (46.7%) of the women had 2 children followed by 179 (29.8%) with 1 child, 93 (15.5%) with 3 children, 34 (5.7%) with 4 children, and only 14 (2.3%) of the married women had no children.

The prevalence of contraceptive use in the present study was 353 (58.8%), among these 96 (16.0%) were condom users, 113 (18.9%) were using intrauterine devices, 26 (4.3%) were practicing rhythm method, 20 (3.3%) of them were using oral contraceptive (OC) pill, 98 (16.3%) were practicing sterilization method, and 247 (41.2%) of the married women did not practice any of the contraceptive method at the time of the study [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of married women according to the current use of contraceptive method


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  Discussion Top


In the present study, the age of the married women in the study ranged from 20 to 42 years. The mean age (±SD) was 29 ± 4.52 years. A similar study was conducted in Bagalkot[7] among married women of age group 15-45 years; majority of study participants were in the age group of 20-30 years with mean age of 28 years. Majority 585 (97.5%) of the women were literates, and 82.3% of women were housewives in our study, but literacy level was slightly low 67%, and also 94.8% of women were housewives in a study done in Lucknow.[8]

The prevalence of contraceptive use in our study was 353 (58.8%) which is quite lower compared the contraceptive prevalence rate (64%) in urban population of India according to National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III).[9] Similar study done among the reproductive age group married women in urban areas of Bengaluru[10] and Punjab[11] showed that the prevalence rate was 58.6% and 53.84%, respectively.

Study conducted in Mangalore[12] showed that 15.6% of their husbands' were condom users, 13.3% of women were practicing rhythm method, 5% were using OC pill, 18.4% were using intrauterine contraceptive devices, and 31.8% were practicing sterilization, which was quite similar to our study in indices such as condom, intrauterine contraceptive device, and OC pills. Another study conducted in urban areas of Punjab[11] showed that among the contraceptive users, condoms, OC pills, and intrauterine devices were used by 41.6%, 28.4%, and 8.0%, respectively, and 4.93% were practicing sterilization which is quite high compared to our study.


  Conclusion Top


The present community-based cross-sectional study regarding the prevalence of contraceptive use revealed that the prevalence rate was just more than 50%. Improving literacy rate, especially female literacy, will help us in a long way to improve the prevalence of contraceptive use in the community. In conclusion, the findings support the contention that there is still a need to intensify Information Education Communication activities and motivate the population to practice contraception.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Saxena S, Oakeshott P, Hilton S. Contraceptive use among South Asian women attending general practices in Southwest London. Br J Gen Pract 2002;52:392-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Murarkar KS, Soundale SG. Epidemiological correlates of contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group in rural area. Natl J Community Med 2011;2:78-81.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ade A, Revati S, Kulkarni A. Contraceptive practices and awareness of emergency contraception among Muslim women of urban slum of Raichur, Karnataka. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014;3:70-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Khan NR, Jerifa S. Prevalence of contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age groups in a rural area of Bangladesh. J Dhaka Med Coll 2014;23:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Stover J, Ross J. How increased contraceptive use has reduced maternal mortality. Matern Child Health J 2010;14:687-95.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Park K. Park′s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur: M/S. Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2013. p. 454.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Raikar VR, Potdar AP, Potdar AB. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding emergency contraceptives among married women of urban slum area. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015;4:1008-11.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rizvi A, Mohan U, Singh SK, Singh VK. Assessment of knowledge of contraceptives and its practice among married women in urban slums of Lucknow district. Indian J Community Health 2013;25:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
India: National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS 3) 2005-06. Mumbai, India: International Institute of Population Sciences; 2007. Available from: http://www.mumbaidp24seven.in/reference/FRIND3_VoII_Oct_17_2008.pdf. [Last cited on 2015 Aug 08].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Hajira SI, Kishore K. Assessment of knowledge about contraceptive methods among Bangalore Urban women. Int Med J 2014;1:510-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Balgir RS, Singh S, Kaur P, Verma G, Kaur S. Contraceptive practices adopted by women attending an urban health centre in Punjab, India. Int J Res Dev Health 2013;1:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lakshmi MM, Neetha, Rai S. Contraceptive practices among reproductive age of women in justice K. S. Hegde Medical College Hospital, Mangalore. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynaecol 2013;2:39-46.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
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