|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 88-91
Knowledge and attitude toward evidence-based dentistry among postgraduate students of a dental college in South India
K. V. N. R. Pratap, T Madhavi Padma, M Pavana Sandhya, V Siva Kalyan, A Anitha, A. S. K. Bhargava
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||7-Jan-2015|
Dr. V Siva Kalyan
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Practicing evidence-based approach has been widely promoted in medicine although this has been to a lesser extent in dentistry. The present study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students toward evidence-based dentistry.
Methodology: The study sample consists of 71 postgraduate students of Mamata Dental College, Khammam. An 11 item multiple choice, close-ended questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of the postgraduate students toward evidence-based dentistry. The results were expressed in percentage and counts.
Results: About 49.3% of the students are unaware of evidence-based dentistry, and 29.5% students could apply the concept. About 80% of the students are interested in finding information about evidence-based dentistry and 33% of the students agree that the evidence-based dentistry provides best decision-making skills. A total of 76% of the students agreed that it improves skills in clinical performance.
Conclusion: The findings of this study state that there is a need of evidence-based methods as they are the upcoming methods of dentistry. Lack of confidence and availability of resources are important barriers in practicing evidence-based dentistry.
Keywords: Awareness, dentistry, evidence-based dentistry, knowledge
|How to cite this article:|
Pratap K, Padma T M, Sandhya M P, Kalyan V S, Anitha A, Bhargava A. Knowledge and attitude toward evidence-based dentistry among postgraduate students of a dental college in South India. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2014;7:88-91
|How to cite this URL:|
Pratap K, Padma T M, Sandhya M P, Kalyan V S, Anitha A, Bhargava A. Knowledge and attitude toward evidence-based dentistry among postgraduate students of a dental college in South India. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 May 24];7:88-91. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2014/7/2/88/148806
| Introduction|| |
The dentistry is defined as the evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of diseases, disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and/or the adjacent associated structures, and their impact on the human body; provided by a dentist; within the scope of his or her education, training, and experience in accordance with the ethics of the profession and applicable law. 
Evidence-based dentistry is defined as the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. , This acts as a scientific evidence to guide decision making in dentistry.  The evidence-based dentistry helps the patient to receive improved treatment. The patients can be educated and motivated to undergo the newer methods of treatments and also preventive methods like fluoride application, pit and fissure sealants etc., by evidence-based dentistry. ,
With the evidence-based approach, clinician will ultimately adopt the more effective treatment modalities and methods, resulting in better outcomes for patients, the patients are also easily convinced by the evidence provided by the clinicians.
Recent studies have reported that the majority of the students who are unaware of the concept are from the 1 st year postgraduate students. According to a study by Dr. Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar 76% of the students replied a change in clinical performance after attending an evidence-based course. 
As the dentistry is becoming more common and challenging in present days due to the changing lifestyles and increased consciousness of people toward esthetics and oral care, the knowledge of the upcoming practitioners, that is, the postgraduates should have knowledge on the evidence-based dentistry.
Purpose of the study
Since no study was conducted till date on knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students toward evidence-based dentistry in Khammam, the present study was conducted under the following aims and objectives.
The aim was to assess the knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students toward evidence-based dentistry.
- To know the perceived knowledge of the students on evidence-based dentistry
- To know the response of students regarding the knowledge of study designs, key domains of a randomized control trail
- To know the attitude toward tradition-based care and evidence-based care.
| Methodology|| |
Study design and sample
It is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study with a sample of 71 postgraduate students.
Permission for data collection was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Board.
Prior informed consent was taken from the students explaining about the study and questionnaires were distributed, which are usually filled in the presence of the investigator.
The questionnaire is designed was adopted from a study conducted by Dr. Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar, which was in English language.  The questionnaire was close-ended and consisted of two parts:
- The first part developed for the study consisted of 3 items pertaining to demographic data that include age, gender, year of study of students
- The second part developed for the study consisted of 11 multiple choice questions. This section was used to collect information regarding knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students toward evidence-based dentistry.
The questionnaires were distributed to postgraduate students and are collected during clinical hours.
| Results|| |
A total number of 71 questionnaires was distributed to the students.
[Table 1] represents the students according to the gender, year of postgraduation, and department of specialization. Majority of the students are females that is, 60.56%. The students of 1 st year (53.52%) are more when compared to that of 2 nd year students (46.48%).
|Table 1: Distribution of the students according to sex, department of specialization, year of postgraduation|
Click here to view
Majority of the students that is, 49.30% are aware of the concept and the students who are unaware of the concept are mostly from the 1 st year which is almost 15.57%. Maximum number of students (80.28%) has agreed that they are interested in finding the information on evidence-based dentistry.
The students agreeing that the systemic reviews and randomized control trails provides highest levels of evidence in maximum, that is, 78.87%. Highest number of students that is, 85.51% accept that the sample size, randomization, blinding, placebo, and appropriate statistics are important factors in a good quality randomized controlled trial.
[Table 2] represents the comparison between the evidence-based dentistry and tradition-based care. Majority of the students, that is, 64.7% agree that the evidence-based care is broader, deeper and faster. On the other hand, majority of the students, that is, 73.24% disagree that tradition based care is cheaper, easy to use and provides best decision making.
|Table 2: Evidence - based care is broader, deeper, and faster moving approach to clinical decision-making than tradition based care|
Click here to view
[Table 3] represents the attitude of the students toward evidence-based care. About 73.24% of students agree that effective and efficient treatment is based on the integration of best available evidence, and only 1.41% disagree.
|Table 3: Effective and efficient treatment is based on the integration of best available evidence, decision-making on clinical experience and patient reference|
Click here to view
| Results|| |
Of the total students, 83.10% students agree that the evidence based care improves patient care, and 76% students replied that evidence-based dentistry improves the skills in clinical performance [Table 4]. About 40.85% of students agreed that staff colleagues are best sources of information rather than journal and textbook.
|Table 4: Evidence - based dentistry improve the skills in clinical performance|
Click here to view
[Table 5] represents the perceived barriers in practicing evidence-based dentistry. The perceived barriers as responded by the students were lack of available evidence and confidence (32.39%) followed by lack of availability of resources (28.17%), lack of time and knowledge (18.31%), attitudes of patients to change (15.49%), and others (5.63%).
| Discussion|| |
The present survey discusses the knowledge of the postgraduate students towards evidence-based dentistry. According to the present study conducted majority of the students have knowledge on evidence-based dentistry which reflects the interest of the students and their updated information.
In the present study, 49.30% of students know the concept of evidence-based dentistry, of the other 50% students 29.58% students could apply the concept and 11.27% of students could not apply but only know the concept. Most of the 1 st year postgraduate students are unaware of evidence-based dentistry as they spend most of the time with the preclinical works, revising the basic syllabus.
Although the majority of the students have knowledge on the concept of evidence-based dentistry around 80% of the students are still in interested in finding information about evidence-based dentistry. This shows the interest of the students in updating the knowledge.
Majority of the students agreed evidence-based dentistry is the faster, broader, and deeper moving approach to clinical decision making than tradition based care. There is an increasing acceptance globally that the use of high-tech equipment is alone is not sufficient in providing dental care.  As the evidence-based guidelines consist of recommendations based on scientific evidence of effectiveness, it helps in achieving the objectives of clinical practice. 
According to the previous study by Dr. Sowmya Anaberu Rajashekar on evidence-based care, the students accept that the evidence base care is broader, deeper, and faster but on the other hand they accept that the tradition based care cheaper and easier to use. The present study states that 33% of the students disagree that tradition based care provides best decision-making skills, cheaper, and easy to use. 
The present study states that the majority of the students agree that the evidence-based dentistry improves patient care. In evidence-based care eliciting and respecting patients, preferences are especially important when there is reasonable doubt about the best course of action. 
Around 76% of the students accepted that the evidence-based dentistry improves skills in clinical performance. This is because the evidence-based dentistry informs but not replaces clinical judgment.
The various media for giving information on evidence-based dentistry are journals, textbooks, internet, experts, colleagues, and staff. The present study states that most of the students prefer the staff and colleagues as the best source of information than the other sources. This may be because they are quick and easy, but the journals and textbooks also offer valuable information.
The study states that the most common perceived barriers in practicing evidence-based dentistry is lack of confidence and availability of resources. In a study conducted by Fedorowicz et al. study, the major barrier to use the evidence-based dentistry is time due to the patient load and no access to evidence-based resource.  The issue of availability of time is complex and is often attributed to clinical overload. Hence, time is also an important factor.
| Conclusion|| |
The majority of similar studies in evidence-based dentistry have noted that the major barrier to practice evidence-based dentistry is time due to patient load.  The evidence-based methods are the upcoming methods of dentistry.  Although many of the students are aware of the concept, they cannot apply it. Hence, it is now time to utilize the concept whenever and wherever required.
| References|| |
American Dental Association House of Delegates, 10/21/97.
Fedorowicz Z, Almas K, Keenon JV. Perceptions and attitudes towards their use of evidence based dentistry among final year students and interns at King Saud University, college of dentistry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Braz J Oral Sci 2004;3:470-4.
Abt E. Evidence based teaching and learning in a postgraduate dental education program. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2004;4:100-6.
Al-Ansari A, ElTantawi M. Factors affecting self-reported implementation of evidence-based practice among a group of dentists. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2014;14:2-8.
Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn't. BMJ 1996;312:71-2.
Nainar SM. Implications of evidence based practice on preventive procedures in pediatric dentistry. Pediatr Dent 1997;19:384-85.
Rajshekar SA, Kote KS, Nagesh L. Knowledge and attitude towards evidence based dentistry among postgraduate students of two dental colleges in Davangere city. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2011;18:761-5.
Nainar SM. Evidence-based dental care - a concept review. Pediatr Dent 1998;20:418-21.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]