|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 42-44
A comparative study to assess the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected areas at Belgaum
Abhay D Pattan, Mangesh J Jabade, Sangeeta A Moreshwar
Department of Community Health Nursing, KLE University's Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||2-Jul-2014|
Abhay D Pattan
Department of Community Health Nursing, KLE University's Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
A comparative study of assessing the knowledge of mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected rural and urban areas in Belgaum.
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of rural mothers of infants regarding weaning, to assess the knowledge of urban mothers of infants regarding weaning and to compare the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning with selected demographic variables.
Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Data was collected by using structured interview schedule. The data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics like mean, standard deviation, mean percentage, median, 't' test and chi-square.
Results: The knowledge of mothers of infants in rural area regarding weaning was found to be average and in urban area it was found to be satisfactory. The mean knowledge score was 29.93 with S.D. 3.11 in rural area and 35.97 with S.D. 4.80 in urban area.
Keywords: Comparative, knowledge, weaning
|How to cite this article:|
Pattan AD, Jabade MJ, Moreshwar SA. A comparative study to assess the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected areas at Belgaum. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2014;7:42-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Pattan AD, Jabade MJ, Moreshwar SA. A comparative study to assess the knowledge of rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning in selected areas at Belgaum. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Aug 24];7:42-4. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2014/7/1/42/135088
| Introduction|| |
Growth is an essential feature of life of a child. The process of growth starts from the time of conception and continues until the child grows in to a fully matured adult. Food is a major concern of the mankind beginning from the time of conception and extending through the entire life span of the individual.
Food supplies the energy for physical activity and other metabolic needs of the body. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining growth of infants and other individuals. 
Nutrition plays a major role during infancy for the growth and development. After the fetal phase, it is the infant period, which accounts for rapid growth. A healthy infant doubles his birth weight within 5-6 months, by the end of a year the child is 3 times its birth weight, and there is an increase in length by 1-year with the increase in length there is also changes in the body proportion. Kidneys attain their functional capacity by the end of the year and also there will be an increase in number of brain cells, which is more rapid in the first 5-6 months after birth.
A successful infant feeding requires co-operation between the mother and her baby, promptly establishing comfortable and satisfying feeding practices contribute greatly to the infant and mothers emotional well-being. 
The term "weaning" comes from the word "wemian," which means to accustom. Weaning is the process of gradual and progressive transfer of the baby from the breast-feeding to the usual family diet. During weaning, the infant gets accustomed to foods other than mother's milk. Weaning foods are given in addition to breastfeed when the amount of breast milk is inadequate. Solid food added to an infant's diet is called beikost. 
Weaning food is started at 4-6 months of age. The infant is accustomed for nourishment other than the mother's milk. Weaning is a difficult period in the infant's life, because if the food supplements or substitutes are not adequate in quantity or quality, the child becomes malnourished. Unhygienic feeding practices may result in enteric infections and diarrhea, further compromising the nutritional state. 
Weaning is the most critical period for the growth of the child. This is the time when growth faltering and nutritional deficiencies manifest in children. Weaning, a transitional period from breast-feeding to adult diet is usually associated with a number of concerns and problems in developing countries. The major concerns are what foods should be given to the child, how and when they should be given. The age to introduce weaning foods varies and is influenced by the tradition of the different ethnic population in the country, urbanization and the socioeconomic status of households. In urban areas, the tendency is early weaning, but in some rural areas weaning is delayed up to 1-year or more. 
Commercially prepared or homemade foods fulfill the nutritional needs of the infant; Such foods are introduced at 4-6 months because infant's food are calorically less dense than milk, they do not "fatten up" an infant, furthermore oropharyngeal co-ordination is immature before 3 months. Vitamin and mineral enriched dry cereals are used as a source of calories (375 cal/100 g), vitamins and minerals particularly iron to supplement the diet of infants whose needs for their nutrients are not met by human milk, formula or other milks. 
The infant requires 110-125 cal/kg body weight/day and fluid requirement is about 150-175 mL/kg body weight/day. During the period of 3-4 months, the baby may weigh as much as 5-5.5 kg, and as such, its demand is more. The breast milk cannot supply the necessary baby's need and as such additional food are required. Semisolid foods such as rice, dhal, boiled fish, and egg are gradually incorporated in the tropical countries. It also prevents the baby from becoming anemic. 
| Materials and Methods|| |
A study was conducted on 60 rural and urban mothers of infants regarding weaning in the selected area of Belgaum. A simple random sampling technique was adopted for 30 mothers of infants from Rukamini Nagar (urban) and 30 mothers of infants from Vantamuri (rural). The sample was drawn through lottery method. The data collected were organized, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics.
| Results|| |
Findings related to knowledge of rural mothers of infants
The analysis shows that majority (36.7%) of rural mothers of infants belonged to the age group of 23-25 years, majority of them (63.3%) were Hindus, with regard to education, majority (46.7%) were having primary education, with regard to occupation, majority (56.7%) were House wives, with regard to income majority (60.0%) have income of < Rs. 3000, most of them 70.0% belonged to nuclear family, majority 53.3% had two children, with regard to source of information, majority (60.0%) were getting information from family members/relatives, with regard to nutritional problem faced by baby, majority (90.0%) of the child not faced any nutrition problem.
The mean knowledge score of rural mothers of infants on weaning was (29.93), mean percentage was (53.45%) with a standard deviation 5.55 [Table 1].
With regard to rural participants, there is a significant association between the knowledge level of mothers of infants and selected demographic variables such as age group (χ2 = 9.31), education (χ2 = 13.47), and number of children (χ2 = 10.82).
|Table 1: Comparison of knowledge score on weaning of rural and urban mothers of infants mothers of infants|
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There is no significant association between demographic variables such as religion (χ2 = 1.525), occupation (χ2 = 8.60), income (χ2 = 1.17), type of family (χ2 = 0.29), source of information (χ2 = 3.40), number of children (χ2 = 1.80), and nutritional problem faced by baby (χ2 = 1.21).
Findings related to knowledge of urban mothers of infants
The analysis shows that majority (46.7%) of urban mothers of infants belonged to the age group of 23-25 years, majority of them (66.7%) were Hindus, majority (40%) had high school education, majority (70.0%) were house wives, majority (73.3%) have income Rs. 3000-5000, majority of them 86.7% belonged to nuclear family, majority 66.7% had one child, majority (53.3%) were getting information from family members/relatives, majority (93.3%) of the child not faced any nutrition problem.
The mean knowledge score of urban mothers of infants was (35.97), mean percentage was (64.23%) with a standard deviation 8.58 [Table 1].
With regard to urban participants there is a significant association between the knowledge level of mothers of infants and selected demographic variables such as education (χ2 = 36.66), occupation (χ2 = 18.66), and income (χ2 = 25.46).
There is no significant association between demographic variables such as age (χ2 = 3.75), religion (χ2 = 7.212), type of family (χ2 = 1.15), number of children (χ2 = 3.46), source of information (χ2 = 8.65), and nutritional problem faced by baby (χ2 = 0.53).
[Table 1] depicts that the mean knowledge score of urban participants 35.96 with mean percentage 64.23% and standard deviation 8.58 was high when compared to mean knowledge score of rural participants 29.93 with mean percentage 53.45% and standard deviation 5.55. Hence the 't'value 5.79 was significant at 5% level. Hence urban mothers of infants are having higher knowledge than rural mothers of infants regarding weaning.
| Conclusion|| |
Based on the analysis of findings of the study, comparison between rural mothers of infants knowledge is more than and urban mothers of infants.
There is no significant association between demographic variables such as religion, occupation, income, type of family, source of information, number of children and nutritional problem faced by baby.
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