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Cover page of the Journal of Health Sciences


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-14

Effect of Amavatavidhvansa rasa: A herbo-mineral formulation on carrageenan - Induced inflammation in rats


1 K.L.E. University's College of Pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, K.L.E. University's College of Pharmacy; Dr. Prabhakar Kore Basic Science Research Centre, K.L.E University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sunil S Jalalpure
Department of Pharmacognosy, K.L.E. University's College of Pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-5006.135027

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  Abstract 

Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Amavatavidhvansa rasa (AVVR) using Wister albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Roots of P. zeylanica L. were collected from local area of Belgaum, Karnataka. A. ferox L. was collected from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Mercury and sulfur (Merck Lab, Mumbai) carrageenan (Sigma, USA) were of pharmaceutical grade. Amavatavidhvansa rasa formulation was prepared as per classical formula mentioned in Bhaishyaja Kalpana.Carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rat.
Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of AVVR against carrageenan-induced paw edema shows that all the three doses have significant effect and markedly reduced the swelling of paw.
Conclusion: AVVR exerts a significant protective effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

Keywords: Amavatavidhvansa rasa, carrageenan, inflammation


How to cite this article:
Mandavkar YD, Jalalpure SS. Effect of Amavatavidhvansa rasa: A herbo-mineral formulation on carrageenan - Induced inflammation in rats. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2014;7:12-4

How to cite this URL:
Mandavkar YD, Jalalpure SS. Effect of Amavatavidhvansa rasa: A herbo-mineral formulation on carrageenan - Induced inflammation in rats. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 15];7:12-4. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2014/7/1/12/135027


  Introduction Top


Inflammation is a pathophysiological response of living tissue to injuries that leads to the local accumulation of plasmic fluid and blood cells. The complex events and mediators involved in the inflammatory reaction can induce, maintain or aggravate many diseases. [1],[2] Drugs, which are in use presently for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions are either narcotics, e.g. opioids or nonnarcotics, e.g. salicylates and corticosteroids, e.g. hydrocortisone. [3],[4] However, these drugs are known to provide symptomatic relief, but do not abrogate the underlying causes or the disease.

Furthermore, prolonged medication may cause adverse effects such as gastrointestinal ulcers and thrombosis leading to discontinuation of treatment. [5] Hence, there is a need to evaluate and standardize a drug or formulation, which is therapeutically more effective, nontoxic and free of any associated adverse effects.

Ayurvedic formulations are found to be clinically useful remedies in numerous disorders with advantages of better patient compliance and less cost. [6] However, the claims made about the pharmacological activities of many of these formulations are neither proven nor refuted by controlled studies. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Amavatavidhvansa rasa (AVVR) is used in the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. As per Bhaishyaja Kalpana, [7] the classical formula known as AVVR, comprises of ingredients to prepare the dosage form, viz.: Purified mercury (Shuddha Paradβ) one part, purified sulfur (Shuddha Ghandaka) four parts, purified aconite (Aconitum ferox L.) one sixteenth part and aqueous decoction of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica L.) quantity sufficient to make 375 mg vati (375 mg tablet).

Hence, the present investigations are designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of AVVR preparation on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats to substantiate the claims made in classical texts of Ayurveda.


  Materials and Methods Top


Collection and authentication

Roots of P. zeylanica L. were collected from the local area of Belgaum, Karnataka in the month of August-September 2011 and A. ferox L. was collected from Varanasi, UP in the month of September 2011. The collected plant and plant parts were authenticated by taxonomist Dr. Harsha Hegade, Research Scientist, RMRC, ICMR, Belgaum. Herbariums were prepared, given the voucher specimen numbers (RMRC-551, 552) and are deposited in college museum.

Chemicals

Mercury and sulfur (Merck Lab, Mumbai), carrageenan (Sigma, USA) were of pharmaceutical grade. Furthermore, the other chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade.

Preparation of Amavatavidhvansa rasa

Amavatavidhvansa
rasa formulation was prepared in KLEU's BMK Ayurvedic College, Belgaum laboratory as per the classical formula mentioned and Bhaishyaja Kalpana. [7] The mercury obtained was purified through sublimation whereas purification of sulfur and aconite was done by the traditional method, using cow's milk/ghee and urine. The purified mercury and sulfur were mixed in a mortar and crushed until the whole mixture was converted into a fine black, lusterless powder called as Kajjali. This fine powder Kajjali, was mixed with aconite powder and juice of the root of P. zeylanica L. and triturated to get a semisolid mass. This semisolid mass was used to prepare a vati (tablet) of 375 mg weight.

Animals

Wistar rats of both sexes, weighing 150-200 g were used for the study. The animals were kept in clean transparent polypropylene cages maintained at 25°C ± 2°C with 12 h dark and light cycle. The animals were fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Belgaum. India.

Acute toxicity test

Acute toxicity assay was performed as per OECD guidelines 423 (limit test). Six female Wistar albino rats (three animals in each step) were randomly selected. The animals were kept fasting overnight providing only water. Then the AVVR was administered orally at one dose level of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In further, rats were observed continuously for the first 4 h and then periodically up to 24 h for toxic symptoms and mortality.

Anti-inflammatory activity

Thirty albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 and 200 g were divided into five groups containing six animals in each group. Group I received no treatment and served as control. Groups II, III, and IV received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg AVVR, respectively. Group V received aspirin 300 mg/kg p.o. and served as standard. After 30 min of the test drug administration and after 1 h of standard drug administration, the animals of all the groups (except Group I) were injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution beneath the sub-plantar surface of the left hind paw. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity, the volume of the paw was measured with the help of mercury plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h. [8],[9]

Percentage inhibition of paw edema volume with respect to control group was calculated using the formula given below:

I = (1 − D/C ) × 1,

where,

I = % inhibition of paw edema,

D = mean change in paw volume of treated rats,

C = mean change in paw volume of control rats.

Statistical analysis

The results were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean statistical significance was determined using one-way analysis of variance test, followed by Dunnet's t-test, value with P < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant.


  Results and Discussion Top


Acute oral toxicity

Acute oral toxicity study was carried out according to OECD-423 guideline. The prepared formulation did not show any acute toxicity symptoms and mortality in all groups at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. p.o. Hence, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. doses were selected for activity. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema is the standard experimental model of acute inflammation. Carrageenan is the phlogistic agent of choice for testing anti-inflammatory drugs as it is not known to be antigenic and is devoid of apparent systemic effects. [10],[11] This study of anti-inflammatory activity of AVVR against carrageenan-induced paw edema shows that all three doses have a significant effect and markedly reduced the swelling of paw. Maximum percent inhibition of paw edema volume in all doses was found at 5 h. Among tested doses AVVR at a lower dose that is, 50 mg/kg b.w. showed maximum inhibition of paw edema (68.11%) followed by aspirin, which showed inhibition (63.04%) at 5 h. whereas, at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. showed 60.86% inhibition in both cases [Table 1].
Table 1: Effect of AVVR on inhibition of the left hind paw edema on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats

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The anti-inflammatory activity might be attributed to the inhibition of release of pro-inflammatory mediators of acute inflammation such as histamine and prostaglandin. Histamine is one of the important inflammatory mediators and is a potent vasodilator substance and increases vascular permeability. [12],[13]


  Conclusion Top


Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that AVVR has potential effect on the carrageenan-induced inflammation in all dose level and had promising chronic anti-inflammatory effect with the long-time administration. However, further study is needed to find out exact mechanism of action. Hence, this study provides a scientific approach to AVVR in consequent health benefits.

 
  References Top

1.Shukla S, Mehta A, Mehta P, Vyas SP, Shukla S, Bajpai VK. Studies on anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:61-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Patel AS, Patel NC, Shah MH, Shah VN. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of fruits of Trapa natans Linn. Int J Pharm Res Dev 2011;3:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Ament PW, Childers RS. Prophylaxis and treatment of NSAID-induced gastropathy. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:1323-6, 1331.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Elgorashi EE, Wada N, Warrag EI, Satoh H. Effect of Acacia species on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. J Nat Rem 2009;9:185-91.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Borgi W, Ghedira K, Chouchane N. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Zizyphus lotus root barks. Fitoterapia 2007;78:16-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, Bhatt N. Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: A comparative overview. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005;2:465-73.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Ratnakar BN. Bhaishyaja Kalpana. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus. Fitoterapia 2007;78:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Begum S, Saxena B, Goyal M, Ranjan R, Joshi VB, Rao ChV, et al. Study of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of seeds of Hyoscyamus niger and isolation of a new coumarinolignan. Fitoterapia 2010;81:178-84.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Panthong A, Norkaew P, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Anantachoke N, Reutrakul V. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extract of gamboge from Garcinia hanburyi Hook f. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111:335-40.10.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Magaji M, Anuka J, Abdu-Aguye I, Yaro A, Hussaini I. Preliminary studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) in experimental animal models. J Med Plants Res 2008;2:39-44.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Vasudevan M, Gunnam KK, Parle M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Thespesia populnea bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:264-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Chahar MK, Sanjaykumar DS, Lokesh T. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of mesuol isolated from Mesua ferrea L. seed oil. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2012;4:51-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
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