Human immunodeficiency virus-associated thrombocytopenia: Profiling hematological changes in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected and AIDS patients
Unnati Pitale1, Deivanayagi Muthusamy2, Manish Verma3, Pritish Chandra Pal1, Humera Ayesha4, Kalyan Murru5, MVR Ratnam6, Abhishek Singh Nayyar7
1 Department of Periodontology, Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
4 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Al-Badar Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Administrative Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, Canada
6 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Sai Dental College and Research Institute, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India
7 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
44, Behind Singla Nursing Home, New Friends' Colony, Model Town, Panipat - 132 103, Haryana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
CONTEXT AND AIM: AIDS is an acronym for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by a retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which breaks down the body's immune system, leaving the patient vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders, or unusual malignancies. According to estimates by the WHO and UNAIDS, 35 million people were living with HIV globally at the end of the year 2013. The first AIDS case in India was detected in the year 1986. Seldom studies have been conducted correlating CD4 cell counts and complete blood picture including platelet counts in HIV infected and AIDS patients in the Indian population. The present study was carried-out with the same intent to evaluate the CD4 cell counts and complete blood picture in the HIV infected and AIDS patients and correlate them with the sero-negative controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study on patients that were divided into three groups: Group A consisting of 500 patients who were healthy controls without any systemic illness, Group B consisting of 500 patients who were diagnosed as HIV infected, and Group C consisting of 500 patients diagnosed as AIDS patients depending on their CD4 cell counts. Evaluation of complete blood picture was done using Sysmex XP 100, a fully automated analyzer, while CD4 cell counts were evaluated using Partec Cyflow Cell Counter.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Comparison of the said parameters was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Games-Howell test. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The results were found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 for hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) counts, and platelet counts in the HIV-infected and AIDS patients when compared with the seronegative controls.
CONCLUSION: Hb, WBC counts, and platelet counts were significantly altered in the HIV-infected and AIDS patients when compared with the seronegative controls.