|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 189-190
World suicide prevention day
RB Nerli1, Shridhar C Ghagane2, Neeraj S Dixit2
1 Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed-to-be-University); KLES Kidney Foundation, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Urology, KLES Kidney Foundation, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||25-Sep-2018|
Dr. R B Nerli
Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed-to-be-University), JN Medical College Campus, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Nerli R B, Ghagane SC, Dixit NS. World suicide prevention day. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2018;11:189-90
World Suicide Prevention Day is observed on September 10th every year, to provide worldwide commitment and action to prevent suicides. It has been observed since 2003 with a number of activities organized so as to make everyone aware of this problem. The International Association for Suicide Prevention hosts the World Suicide Prevention Day in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Federation for Mental Health. An estimated 40 countries held awareness events to mark the occasion in 2011.
An estimated one million people die by suicide every year or about one person in 10,000 (1.4% of all deaths). This figure is expected to reach 1.5 million per year by 2020. More people die from suicide than from murder and war, and it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. There are twenty people who have a failed suicide attempt for every one that is successful, at a rate approximately one every three seconds according to the WHO estimates, and moreover, suicide remains the most common cause of death for people aged 15–24 years.
The theme for this year's World Suicide Prevention Day 2018 is “Working Together to Prevent Suicide.” In the 2012 World Suicide Prevention Day event, several priorities were stated  including (1) need to continue to research suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior, addressing both risk and protective factors; (2) need to develop and implement awareness campaigns, with the aim of increasing awareness of suicidal behaviors in the community, incorporating evidence on both risk and protective factors; (3) need to target efforts not only to reduce risk factors but also to strengthen protective factor, especially in childhood and adolescence; (4) need to train healthcare professionals to better understand evidence-based risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behavior; (5) need to combine primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention; (6) need to increase use of and adherence to treatments shown to be effective in treating diverse conditions and to prioritize research into effectiveness of treatments aimed at reducing self-harm and suicide risk; (7) need to increase the availability of mental health resources and to reduce barriers to accessing care; (8) need to disseminate research evidence about suicide prevention to policymakers at international, national, and local levels; (9) need to reduce stigma and promote mental health literacy among the general population and healthcare professionals; (10) need to reach people who do not seek help and hence do not receive treatment when they are in need of it; (11) need to ensure sustained funding for suicide research and prevention; and (12) need to influence governments to develop suicide prevention strategies for all countries and to support the implementation of those strategies that have been demonstrated to save lives.
India too is battling a high suicide rate. Suicide does not discriminate. People of all gender, ages, and ethnicities can be at risk. Suicidal behavior is complex and there is no single cause. In fact, many different factors contribute to someone making a suicide attempt. However, people most at risk tend to share certain characteristics. The main risk factors for suicide include depression, other mental disorders, or substance abuse disorder, chronic pain, a prior suicide attempt, family history of a mental disorder or substance abuse, family history of suicide, family violence, including physical or sexual abuse, having guns or other firearms in the home, having recently been released from prison or jail, and being exposed to others' suicidal behavior, such as that of family members, peers, or celebrities.
One needs to take it seriously if someone shows tell-tale signs of suicidal tendency. Many help lines are available including in India. This growing problem needs urgent attention from all. Prevention is a key in all these patients. Szanto et al. determined the effectiveness of a depression management educational program for general practitioners (GPs) on the suicide rate in a region with a high suicide rate in Hungary. The annual suicide rate in the intervention region decreased from the 5-year preintervention average of 59.7 in 100,000–49.9 in 100,000. The decrease was comparable with the control region but greater than both the county and Hungary (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In rural areas, the female suicide rate in the intervention region decreased by 34% and increased by 90% in the control region (P < 0.07). The increase in antidepressant treatment was greater in the intervention region compared with the control region, the county, and Hungary and in women compared with men (P < 0.002). The authors concluded that a GP-based intervention produced a greater decline in suicide rates compared with the surrounding county and national rates. Every institute, region, and nation needs to develop optimal suicide prevention plans based on major local-risk factors.
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