|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 241-244
Knowledge of Anganwadi workers regarding different components provided by integrated child development scheme: A cross-sectional study
Prithutam Bhattarai1, Padmaja R Walvekar2, Ashwini Narasannavar1
1 Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||5-Sep-2017|
Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Integrated child development service (ICDS) program was launched on October 02, 1975 and is the world's largest and unique program for early childhood care and development. It is working in urban and rural areas through Anganwadi centers. The beneficiaries that come under ICDS are 0–6 year's children, pregnant and lactating women, and adolescent girls. There are six core services provided by ICDS through Anganwadis. It is very essential to assess the knowledge of Anganwadi workers (AWWs) about different components of ICDS.
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge status of AWW regarding different ICDS components and to compare the knowledge of AWW working in rural and urban areas.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to December 2016 among AWWs of urban and rural health centers under KLE University, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College. Data collection was done with the help of prestructured questionnaire through interview method.
Results: Out of 218 AWW, 33.9% were from urban areas and 66.1% were from rural areas. Maximum number (47.2%) of AWWs were found to be in the age group of 39–47 years. Majority of the AWW (52.3%) had working experience of 16–23 years. Our study found that 68.3% of AWW had moderate knowledge score about components of ICDS, 18.3% had low, and 13.3% had high knowledge score. Knowledge related to supplementary nutrition was found to be good in urban AWWs and knowledge of growth monitoring was found to be good in rural AWWs.
Conclusion: Maximum number of AWWs had average knowledge score regarding ICDS components. It is important to organize frequent refreshers training course to enable them to give best of services.
Keywords: Anganwadi centers, Anganwadi workers, integrated child development scheme
|How to cite this article:|
Bhattarai P, Walvekar PR, Narasannavar A. Knowledge of Anganwadi workers regarding different components provided by integrated child development scheme: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2017;10:241-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Bhattarai P, Walvekar PR, Narasannavar A. Knowledge of Anganwadi workers regarding different components provided by integrated child development scheme: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 18];10:241-4. Available from: http://www.ijournalhs.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/241/214008
| Introduction|| |
According to 2011 Census of India, there are 158 million children who fall under the age group of 0–6 years. These children are the future generation, and human resource of the country and their health status determines the development of Nation. Ministry of women and child development has come up with many programs to uplift the health status of the children; Integrated child development service (ICDS) is one of such vital and largest programs.
ICDS program was launched on October 02, 1975. It is one of the world's largest and unique programs for early childhood care and development, which shows that the commitment of country to its children and nursing mothers is at top most priority.
ICDS is working in the rural as well as urban area. It is working through the Anganwadi. The objective of ICDS is to enhance nutrition and health status of children of age group of 0–6 years, pregnant and lactating women, and adolescent girls whereby creating a proper psychological, physical, and social development of the child. There are six core services under ICDS scheme which are supplementary nutrition, preschool nonformal education, nutrition and health education, immunization, health checkup, and referral Services. The present study aims to assess the knowledge of Anganwadi workers (AWW) regarding various aspects of ICDS services provided to children, mother, and adolescent girls. This study also helps to know the difficulties faced by AWW in smooth running of the centers.
The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge status of AWW regarding different ICDS components and to compare the knowledge of AWWs working in rural and urban areas.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All the AWWs working under urban and rural health centers under Field Practice Area of KLE universities, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC) (urban health centers [UHC] = 76 Anganwadis and primary health centers [PHC] = 164) total = 240. The response rate of the study was (218) 90.83%. Data collection was done with the help of prestructured questionnaire. The questionnaire was pretested by doing a pilot study. Data was collected through interview method by making personal visit to Anganwadi centers (AWCs). Informed consent was taken, before collecting the data. Ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee of JNMC, KLE'S, was obtained for the study. All AWWs who came under three PHCs and three UHCs came under inclusion criteria, and all those AWWs who did not consent to take part in the study were excluded from the study. In the study, thirty questions related to knowledge were asked to the AWW's. The final summed up score was calculated, and overall knowledge was calculated. The knowledge was grouped into three categories such as low (<17 score), moderate (score 17–23), and high (>23 score). Mean ± 1 standard deviation was used to categorize the three groups.
Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and MS Excel. Knowledge assessment was done by scoring system. A correct answer was given 1 mark and a wrong answer was given 0 marks.
| Results|| |
Out of 240 AWWs, only 218 responded to our study which constitutes 90.83% response rate.
Maximum number of AWCs, i.e., 138 (63.3%) were functioning in private building whereas 80 (36.7%) were in government building. One hundred and fifty-three (70.2%) AWCs had toilet facilities. About 185 (84.9%) AWCs had drinking water facility. Electricity was present in 129 (59.2%) of the AWC.
Through this study, we came to know that AWW had poor knowledge regarding Sneha Shivir and monitoring of weight gain of severe acute malnourished children only 6.4% and 12.8% had correct knowledge, respectively.
This study also revealed that majority of the AWWs 53.7% were facing some kind of problem in their professions such as work overload, excessive record maintenance, problems related to infrastructure, logistic supply related, inadequate salary, lack of help from community, and inaccessibility of supervisor.
| Discussion|| |
In the present study, 50% of AWWs were in the age group of 40–49 years followed by 30–39 years [Table 1]. A study conducted in Aurangabad also showed maximum workers from the same age group., A study conducted in Jammu  revealed that about 44% of the workers were between 30 and 40 years; similarly, a study conducted in urban Patiala  found that half of the AWWs belonged to the age group of 30–40 years.
The study revealed that 76.6% of the AWWs had studied up to SSLC, followed by PUC and Degree [Table 1]. A study conducted in Kashmir  revealed that 70% of the AWWs were educated up to SSLC, whereas 20% of them were educated up to PUC level. A study conducted in Patiala also showed that more than 65% of the workers had a minimum qualification of SSLC.
In our study, 40% of AWWs had experience of 21 years [Table 1]. A study conducted in Patiala revealed that 42% of the workers had work experience of 10–15 years.
Maximum number of AWWs (97.7%) had received Anganwadi training and refreshers training [Table 1], whereas a study conducted in Kashmir showed that only 60% had taken training  this could be because of repeated law and order problem over there. A study conducted in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, and Maharashtra  showed that about 53% of the AWW had received refresher training which was comparatively less than that in our study.
A study done in Sundargarh, Odisha  revealed that mean knowledge score was 12.83 ± 2.71 out of thirty questions. In our study, we found that 68.3% AWWs had an average score [Table 2]. A study conducted in Aurangabad  found that 82.65% AWWs had overall knowledge score of above 50%, which was fairly higher than that in our study. Another study conducted in Kerala found that 62.4% had average knowledge score11 which was slightly less than that in you study.
The problems faced by AWWs were similar to those faced by workers were similar to the study conducted in Aurangabad, Gujarat, and Odisha.
Our study revealed that AWW in urban areas had better knowledge about supplementary nutrition [Table 3] and those working in rural areas had better knowledge about growth monitoring [Table 4].
|Table 3: Association between supplementary nutrition and type of Anganwadi centers|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Association between growth monitoring and type of Anganwadi centers|
Click here to view
The study was done in all AWWs working under urban and rural PHCs, under KLE universities, JNMC, so the result cannot be generalized to other population. AWC not working under medical college were not included in the study. The present study was based on the response given by AWWs only, but the opinion from the beneficiaries was not included.
| Conclusion|| |
Our study concluded that the mean knowledge score of AWW about components of ICDS was 19.67 ± 2.789, about 68.3% of AWW's had moderate knowledge, 18.3% had low level, and 13.3% had high knowledge, regarding different components of ICDS. Knowledge of Supplementary nutrition was better in urban AWC and knowledge related to growth monitoring was better in rural AWC.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Ministry of Women and Child Development Government of India (Integrated Child DEVELOPMENT SERVICE (ICDS) Scheme). Available from: http://www.icds-wcd.nic.in/icds/#
. [Last accessed on 2017 Jan 02].
CARD and Sambodhi Research and Communication. Impact Assessment of ICDS in Madhya Pradesh. Final Report; 2009-2010. p. 1-6.
Thakare MM, Kuril MB, Doibale KM, Goel KN. Knowledge of anganwadi workers and their problems in and urban ICDS block. J Med Coll Chandigarh 2011;1:15-9.
Patil SB, Doibale MK. Study of Profile, Knowledge and problems of anganwadi workers in ICDS blocks: A cross sectional study. Online J Health Allied 2013;12:1. Available from: http://www. ojhas.org/issue46/2013-2-1.html
. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 15].
Manhas S, Dogra A, Devi S. Reflection of integrated child development services (ICDS) in implementation of services at Bishnah and Purmandal block, Jammu. Stud Home Community Sci 2012;6:27-32.
Singh AK, Nadda A, Rochwani R, Singh P, Khan ZA, Goel RK. Study of knowledge and skills of anganwadi workers regarding breastfeeding and infant and young child feeding practices. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2017;6:1-6.
Manzoor S, Khurshid S. Assessment of knowledge of anganwadi workers and their problems in district Ganderbal of Kashmir. Int Refereed Res J 2014;2:109-13.
Parmar M, Patel S, Rathod S, Patel N, Ninama K. Knowledge of anganwadi worker about integrated child development services (ICDS): A study of urban blocks in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat. Int J Multidiscip Res Dev 2015;2:170-4.
Sondankar PD, Kotnis SD, Kumavat AP. Profile of anganwadi workers and their knowledge regarding maternal and child health services in an urban area. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015;4:502-7.
Sivakumar D, Thomas B, Deepika M, Rahim A. Child care services for three to six Years old children in urban anganwadi's in Kozhikode Corporation in Kerala – An evaluation study. Stanley Med J 2015;2:2-6.
Jena P. Knowledge of Anganwadi Worker About Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): A Study of Urban Blocks in Sundargarh District of Odisha. A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela; May, 2013 (Unpublished Study).
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]